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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Head to Head Comparison of Two Point-of-care Platelet Function Tests Used for Assessment of On-clopidogrel Platelet Reactivity in Chinese Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Yi Yao, Jia-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Fang Tang, Chen He, Yuan-Liang Ma, Jing-Jing Xu, Ying Song, Ru Liu, Xian-Min Meng, Lei Song, Miao Wang, Run-Lin Gao, Jin-Qing Yuan
5th October 2016, 129(19):2269-2274
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.190664  PMID:27647183
Background: Platelet function tests are widely used in clinical practice to guide personalized antiplatelet therapy. In China, the thromboelastography (TEG) test has been well accepted in clinics, whereas VerifyNow, mainly used for scientific research, has not been used in routine clinical practice. The aim of the current study was to compare these two point-of-care platelet function tests and to analyze the consistency between the two tests for evaluating on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Chinese acute myocardial infarction patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 184 patients admitted to Fuwai Hospital between August 2014 and May 2015 were enrolled in the study. On-clopidogrel platelet reactivity was assessed 3 days after PCI by TEG and VerifyNow using adenosine diphosphate as an agonist. Based on the previous reports, an inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) <30% for TEG or a P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) >230 for VerifyNow was defined as high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR). An IPA >70% or a PRU <178 was defined as low on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (LPR). Correlation and agreement between the two methods were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (r) and kappa value (κ), respectively. Results: Our results showed that VerifyNow and TEG had a moderate but significant correlation in evaluating platelet reactivity (r = −0.511). A significant although poor agreement (κ = 0.225) in identifying HPR and a significantly moderate agreement in identifying LPR (κ = 0.412) were observed between TEG and VerifyNow. By using TEG as the reference for comparison, the cutoff values of VerifyNow for the Chinese patients in this study were identified as PRU >205 for HPR and PRU <169 for LPR. Conclusions: By comparing VerifyNow to TEG which has been widely used in clinics, VerifyNow could be an attractive alternative to TEG for monitoring on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity in Chinese patients.
  7,731 1,992 -
Mineral and Bone Disorder and Its Association with Cardiovascular Parameters in Chinese Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Chu Zhou, Fang Wang, Jin-Wei Wang, Lu-Xia Zhang, Ming-Hui Zhao
5th October 2016, 129(19):2275-2280
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.190678  PMID:27647184
Background: Mineral and bone disorder (MBD), especially hyperphosphatemia, is an independently risk factor for adverse prognosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, CKD-MBD among Chinese population was poorly studied. This study aimed to investigate the status of MBD and its association with cardiovascular parameters in Chinese patients with predialysis CKD. Methods: Chinese Cohort Study of Chronic Kidney Disease (C-STRIDE) is a prospective multicenter cohort study involving predialysis CKD patients in China. Markers of MBD, including serum phosphorus, calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone, were measured in baseline samples at the patients' entry. The association between serum phosphorus and abdominal aortic calcification (AAC), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) were examined by logistic regression models. Results: Altogether 3194 predialysis patients with mean estimated glomerular filtration of 51.8 ± 33.1 ml.min−1.1.73 m−2 were included. The proportion of patients with hyperphosphatemia were 2.6%, 2.9%, 6.8%, and 27.1% in CKD Stages 3a, 3b, 4, and 5, respectively. Moreover, 71.6% of the patients with hyperphosphatemia did not receive any phosphate-binder (PB). Lateral abdominal X-rays were obtained in 2280 patients, 9.8% of the patients were diagnosed as having AAC. Altogether 2219 patients had data of echocardiography, and 13.2% of them were diagnosed with LVH. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum phosphorus was independently associated with the presence of AAC and LVH. Conclusions: In Chinese patients with CKD, the percentage of hyperphosphatemia is comparable to that of other countries while the usage of PBs is suboptimal. The prevalence of vascular calcification in Chinese patients is relatively lower compared with the Caucasian population.
  5,887 1,561 -
EDITORIAL
The New Era of Organ Transplantation in China
The Transplant Experts of the National Organ Donation and Transplantation Committee , The Officers of National Health and Family Planning Commission , Jie-Fu Huang, Hai-Bo Wang, Shu-Sen Zheng, Yong-Feng Liu, Bing-Yi Shi, Zhong-Yang Shen, Sheng-Shou Hu, Qi-Fa Ye, Wu-Jun Xue, Xiao-Shun He, Jing-Yu Chen, Feng Huo, Bing Du, Jing Fan, Yan-Hong Guo, Zong-Jiu Zhang
20th August 2016, 129(16):1891-1893
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.187865  PMID:27503011
  4,197 1,064 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of Half-dose and Standard-dose Conjugated Equine Estrogens Combined with Natural Progesterone or Dydrogesterone on Components of Metabolic Syndrome in Healthy Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Wei Xue, Yan Deng, Yan-Fang Wang, Ai-Jun Sun
5th December 2016, 129(23):2773-2779
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.194646  PMID:27900987
Background: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has been proven to have beneficial effects on several components of metabolic syndrome. However, the effects vary according to different regimens, dosages, and duration of MHT. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of standard-dose 0.625 mg conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) and half-dose 0.3 mg CEE daily with different progestogens in a continuous sequential regimen on postmenopausal metabolic parameters in generally healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: A prospective, open-label, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015. Totally 123 Chinese postmenopausal women with climacteric symptoms were included in this study and were randomly assigned to three groups: Group A received CEE 0.3 mg/micronized progesterone (MP) 100 mg daily; Group B received CEE 0.625 mg/MP 100 mg daily; and Group C received CEE 0.625 mg/dydrogesterone 10 mg daily. Drugs were given in a continuous sequential pattern. The duration of treatment was 12 months. Clinical, anthropometrical, and metabolic variables were measured. Data were analyzed according to intention-to-treat analysis, using Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Results: A total of 107 participants completed the 12-month follow-up and were included in the data analysis. At 12 months of treatment, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A significantly increased, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly decreased in Groups B and C, compared with baseline (all P < 0.05). Among the three groups, only Group C showed significantly increased triglycerides compared with baseline (1.61 ± 0.80 mmol/L vs. 1.21 ± 0.52 mmol/L, P = 0.026). Each group showed a neutral effect on total cholesterol, lipoprotein A, apolipoprotein B, and fasting insulin levels. No cardiovascular and venous thromboembolic events occurred in the three groups. Conclusions: Among Chinese postmenopausal women, half-dose CEE was not sufficient to induce a favorable lipid and carbohydrate profile compared with standard-dose CEE. Adding natural MP may counterbalance the TG-increasing effect of CEE. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01698164; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01698164?term=NCT01698164&rank=1.
  4,091 1,103 -
EDITORIAL
Bronchiectasis as a Comorbidity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Implications and Future Research
Ya-Hong Chen, Yong-Chang Sun
5th September 2016, 129(17):2017-2019
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.189071  PMID:27569224
  4,036 1,041 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study
Peng Liu, Yi-Feng Zhou, Peng Yang, Yan-Sha Gao, Gui-Ru Zhao, Shi-Yan Ren, Xian-Lun Li
20th November 2016, 129(22):2647-2651
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.193462  PMID:27823994
Background: The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein, which is often accompanied by high complication rate. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique. Methods: A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly. Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded. Results: The overall success rate (95.7% vs. 96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs. 66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups. In the subclavian vein group, pneumothorax occurred in three patients. The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead. In contrast, there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group. In the patient follow-ups, two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement. The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122), respectively (χ2 = 5.813, P = 0.016). Conclusion: Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement. Trial Registration: www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02358551; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02358551?term=NCT02358551& rank=1.
  3,958 1,103 -
EDITORIAL
Minimally Invasive Reduction and Fixation in Orthopedic Trauma
Ying-Ze Zhang
5th November 2016, 129(21):2521-2523
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.192773  PMID:27779155
  3,947 1,014 -
Improvement of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Prognosis: Early Diagnosis and Multimodality Treatment
Cheng-Jun Ban, Huan-Zhong Shi, Yu-Hui Zhang
5th January 2017 2017, 130(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.196585  PMID:28051015
  3,876 1,011 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida Granule in Treatment of Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance
Ya-Lin Shi, Wen-Juan Liu, Xiao-Fang Zhang, Wei-Juan Su, Ning-Ning Chen, Shu-Hua Lu, Li-Ying Wang, Xiu-Lin Shi, Zhi-Bin Li, Shu-Yu Yang
5th October 2016, 129(19):2281-2286
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.190676  PMID:27647185
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a major health problem worldwide. Several clinical trials have shown the superiority of the Traditional Chinese Medicine in delaying or reversing the development and progression of DM. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Jinlida (JLD) granule, a Chinese herbal recipe, in the treatment of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and its effect on the prevention of DM. Methods: Sixty-five IGT patients were randomized to receive one bag of JLD granules three times daily (JLD group, n = 34) or no drug intervention (control group, n = 31) for 12 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test, glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, blood lipids levels, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance calculated using homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) of all the patients were observed and compared before and after the treatment. Results: Sixty-one participants completed the trial (32 in JLD group and 29 in the control group). There were statistically significant decreases in HbA1c (P < 0.001), 2-h plasma glucose (P < 0.001), and HOMA-IR (P = 0.029) in JLD group compared with the control group after 12 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment, two (6.9%) patients returned to normal blood glucose, and five (17.2%) patients turned into DM in control group, while in the JLD group, 14 (43.8%) returned to normal blood glucose and 2 (6.2%) turned into DM. There was a significant difference in the number of subjects who had normal glucose at the end of the study between two groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: JLD granule effectively improved glucose control, increased the conversion of IGT to normal glucose, and improved the insulin resistance in patients with IGT. This Chinese herbal medicine may have a clinical value for IGT.
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Effect of Metabolic Syndrome on Risk Stratification for Left Atrial or Left Atrial Appendage Thrombus Formation in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
Yu-Yang Chen, Qi Liu, Li Liu, Xiao-Rong Shu, Zi-Zhuo Su, Hai-Feng Zhang, Ru-Qiong Nie, Jing-Feng Wang, Shuang-Lun Xie
20th October 2016, 129(20):2395-2402
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.191744  PMID:27748329
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a risk factor for stroke and thromboembolism event. Left atrial or LA appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus is a surrogate of potential stroke. The relationship between MS and atrial thrombus remains unclear. In this study, we sought to investigate the effect of MS on risk stratification of LA/LAA thrombus formation in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 294 consecutive NVAF patients without prior anticoagulant and lipid-lowering therapies. LA/LAA thrombus was determined by transesophageal echocardiography. Risk assessment of LA/LAA thrombus was performed using the CHADS2 , CHA2DS2 -VASc, MS, CHADS2 -MS, and CHA2DS2 -VASc-MS scores. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine which factors were significantly related to LA/LAA thrombus. Odds ratio (OR) including 95% confidence interval was also calculated. The predictive powers of different scores for the risk of LA/LAA thrombus were represented by C-statistics and compared by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: LA/LAA thrombi were identified in 56 patients (19.0%). Logistic analysis showed that MS was the strongest risk factor for LA/LAA thrombus in NVAF patients (OR = 14.698, P < 0.001). ROC curve analyses revealed that the C-statistics of CHADS2 -MS and CHA2DS2 -VASc-MS was significantly higher than those of CHADS2 and CHA2DS2 -VASc scores (CHADS2 -MS vs. CHADS2 , 0.807 vs. 0.726, P = 0.0019). Furthermore, MS was helpful for identifying individuals with a high risk of LA/LAA thrombus in the population with a low risk of stroke (CHADS2 or CHA2DS2 -VASc score = 0). Conclusions: MS is associated with LA/LAA thrombus risk in patients with NVAF. In addition to the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2 -VASc scores, the CHADS2 -MS and CHA2DS2 -VASc-MS scores provide additional information on stroke risk assessment.
  3,814 1,011 -
EDITORIAL
Optimizing the Duration of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Implantation of Drug-eluting Coronary Stents
Ying Shen, Wei-Feng Shen
20th March 2015, 128(6):711-713
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.152446  PMID:25758260
  3,579 1,013 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Biomechanical and Macroscopic Evaluations of the Effects of 5-Fluorouracil on Partially Divided Flexor Tendon Injuries in Rabbits
Shkelzen B Duci, Hysni M Arifi, Hasan R Ahmeti, Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu, Burim Neziri, Agon Y Mekaj, Shpetim Lajqi, Labinot Shahini
20th June 2015, 128(12):1655-1661
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.158367  PMID:26063369
Background: The main goals of flexor tendon surgery are to restore digital motion by providing tendon healing and to preserve tendon gliding. Our purpose was to investigate the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on tendon adhesions in partially divided profundus flexor tendons (flexor digitorum profundus [FDPs]) following surgical repair and in partially divided FDPs without surgical repair, and to compare the results of the repair versus the nonrepair of zone two injuries via macroscopic and biomechanical evaluations of tendon adhesions. Methods: We used 32 adult male European rabbits (Oryctolagus cunniculus) weighing from 2.5 to 3.5 kg. The study was performed on the deep flexor tendons of the second and third digits of the right hind paws of the rabbits; thus, a total of 64 tendons were examined in this study. Results: Based on the results achieved in our experimental study, the load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared with subgroup 2a in which tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Conclusions: The load (N) significantly increased in subgroup 1a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and were not treated with 5-FU compared to subgroup 2a in which the tendons were surgically repaired and treated with 5-FU. Therefore, these results revealed a decrease in adhesion formation in the subgroup that was treated with 5-FU due to increased resistance to tendon adhesions during their excursion through the tendon sheath, which in this case required greater traction force.
  3,404 1,132 1
Clinical Features of Adult/Adolescent Atopic Dermatitis and Chinese Criteria for Atopic Dermatitis
Ping Liu, Yan Zhao, Zhang-Lei Mu, Qian-Jin Lu, Li Zhang, Xu Yao, Min Zheng, Yi-Wen Tang, Xin-Xiang Lu, Xiu-Juan Xia, You-Kun Lin, Yu-Zhen Li, Cai-Xia Tu, Zhi-Rong Yao, Jin-Hua Xu, Wei Li, Wei Lai, Hui-Min Yang, Hong-Fu Xie, Xiu-Ping Han, Zhi-Qiang Xie, Xiang Nong, Zai-Pei Guo, Dan-Qi Deng, Tong-Xin Shi, Jian-Zhong Zhang
5th April 2016, 129(7):757-762
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.178960  PMID:26996468
Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by chronic recurrent dermatitis with profound itching. Most patients have personal and/or family history of atopic diseases. Several criteria have been proposed for the diagnosis of AD. Although the clinical features of childhood AD have been widely studied, there has been less large-scale study on adult/adolescent AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features of adult/adolescent patients with chronic symmetrical eczema/AD and to propose Chinese diagnostic criteria for adult/adolescent AD. Methods: A hospital-based study was performed. Forty-two dermatological centers participated in this study. Adult and adolescent patients (12 years and over) with chronic symmetrical eczema or AD were included in this study. Questionnaires were completed by both patients and investigators. The valid questionnaires were analyzed using EpiData 3.1 and SPSS 17.0 software. Results: A total of 2662 valid questionnaires were collected (1369 male and 1293 female). Of all 2662 patients, 2062 (77.5%) patients had the disease after 12 years old, while only 600 (22.5%) patients had the disease before 12 years old, suggesting late-onset eczema/AD is common. Two thousand one hundred and thirty-nine (80.4%) patients had the disease for more than 6 months. One thousand one hundred and forty-four (43.0%) patients had a personal and/or family history of atopic diseases. One thousand five hundred and forty-eight (58.2%) patients had an elevated total serum IgE and/or eosinophilia and/or positive allergen-specific IgE. Based on these clinical and laboratory features, we proposed Chinese criteria for adult/adolescent AD. Of all 2662 patients, 60.3% were satisfied with our criteria, while only 48.2% satisfied with Hanifin Rajka criteria and 32.7% satisfied with Williams criteria, suggesting a good sensitivity of our criteria in adult/adolescent AD patients. Conclusion: Late-onset of eczema or AD is common. The clinical manifestations of AD are heterogeneous. We have proposed Chinese diagnostic criteria for adolescent and adult AD, which are simple and sensitive for diagnosis of adult/adolescent AD.
  3,421 986 2
Clinical Impact of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Use in Patients Following Everolimus-eluting Stent Implantation: Insights from the SEEDS Study
Yao-Jun Zhang, Ye-Lin Zhao, Bo Xu, Ya-Ling Han, Bao Li, Qiang Liu, Xi Su, Si Pang, Shu-Zheng Lu, Xiao-Feng Guo, Yue-Jin Yang
20th March 2015, 128(6):714-720
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.152458  PMID:25758261
Background: Studies have suggested that use of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following new generation drug-eluting stent implantation may increase costs and potential bleeding events. This study aimed to investigate the association of DAPT status with clinical safety in patients undergoing everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation in the SEEDS study (A Registry to Evaluate Safety and Effectiveness of Everolimus Drug-eluting Stent for Coronary Revascularization) at 2-year follow-up. Methods: The SEEDS study is a prospective, multicenter study, where patients (n = 1900) with small vessel, long lesion, or multi-vessel diseases underwent EES implantation. Detailed DAPT status was collected at baseline, 6-month, 1- and 2-year. DAPT interruption was defined as any interruption of aspirin and/or clopidogrel more than 14 days. The net adverse clinical events (NACE, a composite endpoint of all-cause death, all myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST), and major bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium II-V)) were investigated according to the DAPT status at 2-year follow-up. Results: DAPT was used in 97.8% of patients at 6 months, 69.5% at 12 months and 35.4% at 2 years. It was observed that the incidence of NACE was low (8.1%) at 2 years follow-up, especially its components of all-cause death (0.9%), stroke (1.1%), and definite/probable ST (0.7%). DAPT was not an independent predictor of composite endpoint of all-cause death/MI/stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.693, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.096-4.980, P = 0.715) and NACE (HR: 1.041, 95% CI: 0.145-7.454, P = 0.968). Of 73 patients who had DAPT interruption, no patient had ST at 12-month, and only 1 patient experienced ST between 1- and 2-year (1.4%). There was a high frequency of major bleeding events (53/65, 82.5%) occurred in patients receiving DAPT treatment. Conclusions: Prolonged DAPT use was not associated with improved clinical safety. The study emphasized that duration of DAPT needs to be shortened in Chinese patients following EES implantation (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT 01157455).
  3,380 954 1
Efficacy of Leflunomide, Telmisartan, and Clopidogrel for Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Jie Wu, Shu-Wei Duan, Xue-Feng Sun, Wen-Ge Li, Ya-Ping Wang, Wen-Hu Liu, Jian-Rong Zhang, Li-De Lun, Xue-Mei Li, Chun-Hua Zhou, Ji-Jun Li, Shu-Wen Liu, Yuan-Sheng Xie, Guang-Yan Cai, Lu Ma, Wen Huang, Hua Wu, Qiang Jia, Xiang-Mei Chen
20th August 2016, 129(16):1894-1903
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.187848  PMID:27503012
Background: The efficacy and safety of telmisartan combined with clopidogrel, leflunomide, or both drugs for immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) are unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of telmisartan combined with clopidogrel, leflunomide, or both drugs for IgAN. Methods: It is a multicenter, prospective, double-dummy randomized controlled trial. Primary IgAN patients were recruited in 13 renal units across Beijing, China, from July 2010 to June 2012. After a 4-week telmisartan (80 mg/d) wash-in, 400 patients continuing on 80 mg/d telmisartan were randomly assigned to additionally receive placebo (Group A), 50 mg/d clopidogrel (Group B), 20 mg/d leflunomide (Group C), or 50 mg/d clopidogrel and 20 mg/d leflunomide (Group D). The 24-week intervention was completed by 360 patients. The primary endpoint was change in 24-h proteinuria at 24 weeks. A linear mixed-effect model was used to analyze the changes at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate changes in hematuria grade. This trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. Results: The effects of telmisartan combined with leflunomide on changes in proteinuria (0.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18–0.55] g/d, P < 0.001), in serum uric acid (76.96 [95% CI 57.44–96.49] μmol/L, P < 0.001), in serum creatinine (9.49 [95% CI 6.54–12.44] μmol/L, P < 0.001), and in estimated glomerular filtration rate (−6.72 [95% CI−9.46 to −3.98] ml·min−1·1.73 m−2, P < 0.001) were statistically significant, whereas they were not statistically significant on changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and weight (P > 0.05). Telmisartan combined with clopidogrel had no statistical effect on any outcome, and there was no interaction between the interventions. No obvious adverse reactions were observed. Conclusions: Telmisartan combined with leflunomide, not clopidogrel, is safe and effective for decreasing proteinuria in certain IgAN patients. Trial Registration: chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR-TRC-10000776; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=8760.
  3,440 888 -
Relationship between Radiological Stages and Prognoses of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Non-AIDS Immunocompromised Patients
Xiang-Dong Mu, Peng Jia, Li Gao, Li Su, Cheng Zhang, Ren-Gui Wang, Guang-Fa Wang
5th September 2016, 129(17):2020-2025
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.189068  PMID:27569225
Background: Although radiological features of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in non-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) immunocompromised patients have been reported by other authors, there were no studies on the radiological stages of PCP previously. This study aimed to elucidate the radiological stages and prognoses of PCP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of radiological manifestations and prognoses of 105 non-AIDS PCP immunocompromised patients from August 2009 to April 2016 was conducted. Chest radiograph was divided into three stages: early stage (normal or nearly normal chest radiograph), mid stage (bilateral pulmonary infiltrates), and late stage (bilateral pulmonary consolidations); chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was also divided into three stages: early stage (bilateral diffuse ground-glass opacity [GGO]), mid stage (bilateral diffuse GGO and patchy consolidations), and late stage (bilateral diffuse consolidations). Results: The case fatality rate (CFR) of all patients was 34.3% (36/105), all of them took routine chest X-ray (CXR), and 84 underwent chest CT examinations. According to the CXR most near the beginning of anti-PCP therapy, 18 cases were at early stage and CFR was 0 (0/18, P< 0.01), 50 cases were at mid stage and CFR was 28.0% (14/50, P> 0.05), and 37 cases were at late stage and CFR was 59.5% (22/37, P< 0.01). According to the chest HRCT most near the beginning of anti-PCP therapy, 40 cases were at early stage and CFR was 20.0% (8/40, P> 0.05), 34 cases were at mid stage and CFR was 47.1% (16/34, P> 0.05), and 10 cases were at late stage and CFR was 80.0% (8/10, P< 0.05); barotrauma, including pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, and pneumohypoderma, was found in 18 cases and the CFR was 77.8% (14/18, P< 0.01). Conclusions: Based on the radiological manifestations, the course of PCP in non-AIDS immunocompromised patients can be divided into three stages: early stage, mid stage, and late stage. The prognoses of patients treated at early stage are good, and those at late stage are poor. Furthermore, the CFR of patients with barotrauma is high.
  3,438 863 -
A Multicentre Prospective Evaluation of the Impact of Renal Insufficiency on In-hospital and Long-term Mortality of Patients with Acute ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction
Chao Li, Dayi Hu, Xubo Shi, Li Li, Jingang Yang, Li Song, Changsheng Ma
5th January 2015, 128(1):1-6
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.147330  PMID:25563305
Background: Numerous previous studies have shown that renal insufficiency (RI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. These studies do not well address the impact of RI on the long-term outcome of patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in China. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of admission RI and inhospital and long-term mortality of patients with acute STEMI. Methods: This was a multicenter, observational, prospective-cohort study. 718 consecutive patients were admitted to 19 hospitals in Beijing within 24 hours of onset of STEMI, between January 1,2006 and December 31,2006. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the modified abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease equation-based on the Chinese chronic kidney disease patients. The patients were categorized according to eGFR, as normal renal dysfunction (eGFR ≥ 90 ml·min -1·1.73 m -2 ), mild RI (60 ml·min -1·1.73 m -2 ≤ eGFR < 90 ml·min -1·1.73 m -2 ) and moderate or severe RI (eGFR < 60 ml·min -1·1.73 m -2 ). The association between RI and inhospital and 6-year mortality of was evaluated. Results: Seven hundred and eighteen patients with STEMI were evaluated. There were 551 men and 167 women with a mean age of 61.0 ± 13.0 years. Two hundred and eighty patients (39.0%) had RI, in which 61 patients (8.5%) reached the level of moderate or severe RI. Patients with RI were more often female, elderly, hypertensive, and more patients had heart failure and stroke with higher killip class. Patients with RI were less likely to present with chest pain. The inhospital mortality (1.4% vs. 5.9% vs. 22.9%, P < 0.001), 6-year all-cause mortality (9.5% vs. 19.8 vs. 45.2%, P < 0.001) and 6-year cardiac mortality (2.9% vs. 12.2% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001) were markedly increased in patients with RI. After adjusting for other confounding factors, classification of admission renal function was an independent predictor of inhospital mortality (Odd ratio, 1.966; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.002-3.070, P = 0.019), 6-year all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] = 1.501, 95% CI: 1.018-4.373, P = 0.039) and 6-year cardiac mortality (RR = 1.663, 95% CI: 1.122-4.617, P = 0.042). Conclusions: RI is very common in STEMI patients. RI evaluated by eGFR is an important independent predictor of short-term and long-term outcome in patients with acute STEMI.
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Lung Function in Wheezing Infants after Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Its Association with Respiratory Outcome
Yuan-Yuan Qi, Gao-Li Jiang, Li-Bo Wang, Cheng-Zhou Wan, Xiao-Bo Zhang, Li-Ling Qian
5th January 2017 2017, 130(1):4-10
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.196577  PMID:28051016
Background: Wheezing is common in early childhood and remains an important health concern. The aim of this study was to assess the lung function of wheezing infants and to investigate the relationship between lung function and respiratory outcome. Methods: Infants <2 years of age with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) who had undergone lung function tests were included in the study. They were assigned to wheeze or no wheeze group based on physical examination. Infants without any respiratory diseases were enrolled as controls. Lung function was measured during the acute phase and 3 months after ALRTI. One-year follow-up for infants with ALRTI was achieved. Results: A total of 252 infants with ALRTI who had acceptable data regarding tidal breathing were included in the final analysis. Compared with the control and the no wheeze groups, infants in the wheeze group had significantly decreased time to peak tidal expiratory flow as a percentage of total expiratory time (TPTEF/TE) (20.1 ± 6.4% vs. 34.4 ± 6.2% and 26.4 ± 8.3%, respectively, P < 0.0001) and significantly increased peak tidal expiratory flow (PTEF) (90.7 ± 26.3 ml/s vs. 79.3 ± 18.4 ml/s and 86.1 ± 28.0 ml/s, respectively, P < 0.01), sReff and Reff. The infants in the wheeze group still had lower TPTEF/TE and volume to peak tidal expiratory flow as a percentage of total expiratory volume (VPTEF/VE) than the no wheeze infants 3 months after the ALRTI. Moreover, there was a significant inverse relationship between TPTEF/TE, VPTEF/VE, and the recurrence of wheezing and pneumonia. Conclusions: Impaired lung function was present in wheezing infants with ALRTI and the deficits persisted. In addition, the lower level of TPTEF/TE and VPTEF/VE was a risk factor for poor respiratory outcome.
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Preoperative Measurement of Tibial Resection in Total Knee Arthroplasty Improves Accuracy of Postoperative Limb Alignment Restoration
Pei-Hui Wu, Zhi-Qi Zhang, Shu-Ying Fang, Zi-Bo Yang, Yan Kang, Ming Fu, Wei-Ming Liao
5th November 2016, 129(21):2524-2529
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.192789  PMID:27779156
Background: Accuracy of implant placement in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is crucial. Traditional extramedullary alignment instruments are fairly effective for achieving the desired mean tibial component coronal alignment. We modified the traditional tibial plateau resection technique and evaluated its effect on alignment restoration. Methods: Two hundred and eighty-two primary TKAs in our hospital between January 2013 and December 2014 were enrolled in this retrospective study. Group A consisted of 128 primary TKAs performed by one senior surgeon. Preoperative measurement of the tibial resection was conducted on radiographs, and the measured thicknesses of the lateral and medial plateau resection were used to place the tibial alignment guide. Group B consisted of 154 primary TKAs performed by the other senior surgeon, using a traditional tibial plateau resection technique. In all patients, an extramedullary guide was used for tibial resection, and preoperative and postoperative full-leg standing radiographs were used to assess the hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA), femoral component alignment angle (FA), and tibial component alignment angle (TA). A deviation ≥3° was considered unsatisfactory. Data were analyzed by unpaired Student's t-test. Results: The mean postoperative HKA and TA angles were significantly different between Groups A and B (178.2 ± 3.2° vs. 177.0 ± 3.0°, t = 2.54, P = 0.01; 89.3 ± 1.8° vs. 88.3 ± 2.0°, t = 3.75, P = 0.00, respectively). The mean postoperative FA was 88.9 ± 2.5° in Group A and 88.9 ± 2.6° in Group B, and no significant difference was detected (t = 0.10, P = 0.92). There were 90 (70.3%) limbs with restoration of the mechanical axis to within 3° of neutral alignment and 38 (29.7%) outliers (>3° deviation) in Group A, whereas there were 89 (57.8%) limbs with restoration of the mechanical axis to within 3° of neutral alignment and 65 (42.2%) outliers (>3° deviation) in Group B. The severity of the preoperative alignment deformity was a strong predictor for postoperative alignment. Conclusions: Using conventional surgical instruments, preoperative measurement of resection thickness of the tibial plateau on radiographs could improve the accuracy of conventional surgical techniques.
  3,060 802 -
EDITORIAL
Advances in China's Organ Transplantation Achieved with the Guidance of Law
Jie-Fu Huang, Hai-Bo Wang, Shu-Sen Zheng, Yong-Feng Liu, Bing-Yi Shi, Zhong-Yang Shen, Sheng-Shou Hu, Qi-Fa Ye, Wu-Jun Xue, Xiao-Shun He, Jing-Yu Chen, Feng Huo
20th January 2015, 128(2):143-146
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.149183  PMID:25591553
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Pathogenesis and Individualized Treatment for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children
Wen-Rui Xu, Hong-Fang Jin, Jun-Bao Du
20th September 2016, 129(18):2241-2245
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.189915  PMID:27625098
Objective: Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the major causes of orthostatic intolerance in children. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis and the progress of individualized treatment for POTS in children. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review are mainly from articles included in PubMed and EMBASE. Study Selection: The original articles and critical reviews about POTS were selected for this review. Results: Studies have shown that POTS might be related to several factors including hypovolemia, high catecholamine status, abnormal local vascular tension, and decreased skeletal muscle pump activity. In addition to exercise training, the first-line treatments mainly include oral rehydration salts, beta-adrenoreceptor blockers, and alpha-adrenoreceptor agonists. However, reports about the effectiveness of various treatments are diverse. By analyzing the patient's physiological indexes and biomarkers before the treatment, the efficacy of medication could be well predicted. Conclusions: The pathogenesis of POTS is multifactorial, including hypovolemia, abnormal catecholamine state, and vascular dysfunction. Biomarker-directed individualized treatment is an important strategy for the management of POTS children.
  3,627 140 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Female Fertility: Is it Safe to "Freeze?"
Lu Zhang, Li-Ying Yan, Xu Zhi, Jie Yan, Jie Qiao
5th February 2015, 128(3):390-397
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.150115  PMID:25635437
Objective: To evaluate the safety and risk of cryopreservation in female fertility preservation. Data sources: The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2013 from journal databases, primarily PubMed and Google scholar. The criteria used in the literature search show as following: (1) human; embryo; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (2) human; oocyte/immature oocyte; cryopreservation/ freezing/vitrification, (3) human; ovarian tissue transplantation; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, (4) human; aneuploidy/DNA damage/epigenetic; cryopreservation/freezing/vitrification, and (5) human; fertility preservation; maternal age. Study selection: The risk ratios based on survival rate, maturation rate, fertilization rate, cleavage rate, implantation rate, pregnancy rate, and clinical risk rate were acquired from relevant meta-analysis studies. These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies with one of the primary outcome measures covering cryopreservation of human mature oocytes, embryos, and ovarian tissues within the last 7 years (from 2006 to 2013, since the pregnancy rates of oocyte vitrification were significantly increased due to the improved techniques). The data involving immature oocyte cryopreservation obtained from individual studies was also reviewed by the authors. Results: Vitrifications of mature oocytes and embryos obtained better clinical outcomes and did not increase the risks of DNA damage, spindle configuration, embryonic aneuploidy, and genomic imprinting as compared with fresh and slow-freezing procedures, respectively. Conclusions: Both embryo and oocyte vitrifications are safe applications in female fertility preservation.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Whether Warfarin Therapy is Associated with Damage on Renal Function in Chinese Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation
Yu Kong, Xin Du, Ri-Bo Tang, Ting Zhang, Xue-Yuan Guo, Jia-Hui Wu, Shi-Jun Xia, Chang-Sheng Ma
20th May 2016, 129(10):1135-1139
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.181970  PMID:27174319
Background: Warfarin is the most common oral anticoagulant to decrease the stroke risk associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). There are very few prospective studies that have explored whether warfarin has an association with damage on renal function in Chinese patients with nonvalvular AF (NVAF). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of warfarin on renal function and study the factors associated with kidney dysfunction in Chinese adult NVAF patients without dialysis therapy. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2013, a total of 951 NVAF patients from 18 hospitals were enrolled. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated from baseline and follow-up serum creatinine levels. Kaplan–Meier survival curves compared the survival of a ≥25% decline in eGFR (hereafter, endpoint), while Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HR s) and 95% confidence intervals for this event after adjustment for age, gender, and selected potential risk factors for renal dysfunction. Cox regression analysis of the various clinical potential variables was performed to identify the predictors of a ≥25% decline in eGFR. Results: After a 58-month follow-up, 951 NVAF patients were divided by observation into warfarin (n = 655) and no anticoagulation groups (n = 296) and 120 (12.6%) patients experienced renal endpoint. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the survival period was not different in the two groups (χ2 = 0.178, log-rank P= 0.67), but patients with systolic blood pressure (SBP) <140 mmHg have significant difference with patients with SBP ≥140 mmHg (χ2 = 4.903, log-rank P= 0.03). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed baseline eGFR and SBP as independent predictors of the endpoint, with HR s of 1.00, and 1.02, respectively. Conclusion: In patients with NVAF, eGFR and SBP are associated with the deterioration of kidney function while Warfarin is not the risk factor of the ≥25% decline in eGFR. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR-OCH-13003729); http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj = 5831.
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Efficacy and Safety of Medium-to-long-term Use of Tolterodine Extended Release with or without Tamsulosin in Patients with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia and Larger Prostate Size: A Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial
Jian-Liang Cai, Zhe Zhou, Yan Yang, Yi-Fu Yan, Shuo Jing, Yan-Qun Na
20th December 2016, 129(24):2899-2906
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.195461  PMID:27958220
Background: The medium-to-long-term use of antimuscarinics alone or in combination with an α-blocker in men with an enlarged prostate is still controversial. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of medium-to-long-term use of tolterodine extended release (ER) with or without tamsulosin in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and larger prostate size. Methods: Totally, 152 patients (age ≥50 years) with BPH, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥12, quality-of-life (QoL) score ≥3, and total prostate volume ≥25 ml were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized into four groups (n = 38 in each) to receive tolterodine ER placebo plus tamsulosin placebo, 0.2 mg tamsulosin plus tolterodine ER placebo, 4 mg tolterodine ER plus tamsulosin placebo, or tolterodine ER plus tamsulosin once daily for 24 weeks. IPSS (total, storage, and voiding subscales), QoL, maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual volume (PVR) were collected at baseline, and at weeks 4, 12, and 24. Results: Compared with placebo, tolterodine ER plus tamsulosin significantly improved total IPSS (−7.15, −12.20, and −14.66 vs. −3.51, −5.78, and −7.23), storage IPSS (−3.56, −5.63, and −6.66 vs. −1.52, −1.21, and −2.43), voiding IPSS (−2.88, −5.10, and −6.48 vs. −1.52, −3.03, and −2.97), QoL (−1.21, −2.40, and −3.21 vs. −0.39, −1.41, and −1.60), Qmax (2.21, 7.97, and 9.72 ml/s vs. 2.15, 2.44, and 2.73 ml/s), and PVR (−17.88, −26.97, and −27.89 ml vs. −12.03, −11.16, and −16.73 ml) at weeks 4, 12, and 24, respectively; the differences were all statistically significant (P < 0.05). Adverse events (AEs) were not increased with treatment progression. Tolterodine ER alone did not improve total IPSS (−4.61, −6.79, and −5.70), voiding IPSS (−0.64, −1.83, and −1.45), QoL (−0.69, −1.21, and −1.41), or Qmax(−0.79, 2.83, and 1.11 ml/s), compared with placebo (all P > 0.05). However, a gradual increase in PVR (10.03, 10.41, and 12.89 ml) and more urinary AEs suggestive of urinary retention (11/38 vs. 4/38) were observed. Conclusion: Medium-to-long-term use of tolterodine ER plus tamsulosin should be recommended in patients with BPH and an enlarged prostate volume. Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR-TRC-09000596; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=8939.
  2,789 727 -
Printed Three-dimensional Anatomic Templates for Virtual Preoperative Planning Before Reconstruction of Old Pelvic Injuries: Initial Results
Xin-Bao Wu, Jun-Qiang Wang, Chun-Peng Zhao, Xu Sun, Yin Shi, Zi-An Zhang, Yu-Neng Li, Man-Yi Wang
20th February 2015, 128(4):477-482
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.151088  PMID:25673449
Background: Old pelvis fractures are among the most challenging fractures to treat because of their complex anatomy, difficult-to-access surgical sites, and the relatively low incidence of such cases. Proper evaluation and surgical planning are necessary to achieve the pelvic ring symmetry and stable fixation of the fracture. The goal of this study was to assess the use of three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques for surgical management of old pelvic fractures. Methods: First, 16 dried human cadaveric pelvises were used to confirm the anatomical accuracy of the 3D models printed based on radiographic data. Next, nine clinical cases between January 2009 and April 2013 were used to evaluate the surgical reconstruction based on the 3D printed models. The pelvic injuries were all type C, and the average time from injury to reconstruction was 11 weeks (range: 8-17 weeks). The workflow consisted of: (1) Printing patient-specific bone models based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, (2) virtual fracture reduction using the printed 3D anatomic template, (3) virtual fracture fixation using Kirschner wires, and (4) preoperatively measuring the osteotomy and implant position relative to landmarks using the virtually defined deformation. These models aided communication between surgical team members during the procedure. This technique was validated by comparing the preoperative planning to the intraoperative procedure. Results: The accuracy of the 3D printed models was within specification. Production of a model from standard CT DICOM data took 7 hours (range: 6-9 hours). Preoperative planning using the 3D printed models was feasible in all cases. Good correlation was found between the preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up X-ray in all nine cases. The patients were followed for 3-29 months (median: 5 months). The fracture healing time was 9-17 weeks (mean: 10 weeks). No delayed incision healing, wound infection, or nonunions occurred. The results were excellent in two cases, good in five, and poor in two based on the Majeed score. Conclusions: The 3D printing planning technique for pelvic surgery was successfully integrated into a clinical workflow to improve patient-specific preoperative planning by providing a visual and haptic model of the injury and allowing patient-specific adaptation of each osteosynthesis implant to the virtually reduced pelvis.
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