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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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5th March 2017
Volume 130 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 505-630

Online since Monday, February 20, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Application of Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Severe Acute Respiratory Failure: Situations, Issues, and Trends Highly accessed article p. 505
Xu-Yan Li, Bing Sun
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200548  PMID:28229979
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Acupuncture Improves Intestinal Absorption of Iron in Iron-deficient Obese Patients: A Randomized Controlled Preliminary Trial Highly accessed article p. 508
Xin-Cai Xie, Yan-Qiang Cao, Qian Gao, Chen Wang, Man Li, Shou-Gang Wei
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200549  PMID:28229980
Background: Obesity has an adverse effect on iron status. Hepcidin-mediated inhibition of iron absorption in the duodenum is a potential mechanism. Iron-deficient obese patients have diminished response to oral iron therapy. This study was designed to assess whether acupuncture could promote the efficacy of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of obesity-related iron deficiency (ID). Methods: Sixty ID or ID anemia (IDA) patients with obesity were screened at Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and were randomly allocated to receive either oral iron replacement allied with acupuncture weight loss treatment (acupuncture group, n = 30) or oral iron combined with sham-acupuncture treatment (control group, n = 30). Anthropometric parameters were measured and blood samples were tested pre- and post-treatment. Differences in the treatment outcomes of ID/IDA were compared between the two groups. Results: After 8 weeks of acupuncture treatment, there was a significant decrease in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip circumference ratio of patients in the acupuncture group, while no significant changes were observed in the control group. Oral iron supplementation brought more obvious improvements of iron status indicators including absolute increases in serum iron (11.08 ± 2.19 μmol/L vs. 4.43 ± 0.47 μmol/L), transferrin saturation (11.26 ± 1.65% vs. 1.01 ± 0.23%), and hemoglobin (31.47 ± 1.19 g/L vs. 21.00 ± 2.69 g/L) in the acupuncture group than control group (all P < 0.05). Meanwhile, serum leptin (2.26 ± 0.45 ng/ml vs. 8.13 ± 0.55 ng/ml, P < 0.05) and hepcidin (3.52 ± 1.23 ng/ml vs. 6.77 ± 0.84 ng/ml, P < 0.05) concentrations declined significantly in the acupuncture group than those in the control group. Conclusion: Acupuncture-based weight loss can enhance the therapeutic effects of iron replacement therapy for obesity-related ID/IDA through improving intestinal iron absorption, probably by downregulating the systemic leptin-hepcidin levels.
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Postprocedural Outcomes and Risk Factors for Arrhythmias Following Transcatheter Closure of Congenital Perimembranous Ventricular Septal Defect: A Single-center Retrospective Study Highly accessed article p. 516
Li-Jian Zhao, Bo Han, Jian-Jun Zhang, Ying-Chun Yi, Dian-Dong Jiang, Jian-Li Lyu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200551  PMID:28229981
Background: Currently, transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect (pmVSD) is a widely accepted therapeutic modality. However, arrhythmias, especially postprocedural heart blocks, are a concern and outcomes are not very clear. This study explored the outcomes and risk factors of arrhythmias associated with transcatheter device closure of pmVSD. Methods: A total of 395 patients diagnosed with pmVSD who successfully underwent transcatheter intervention between January 2010 and December 2015 in our center were retrospectively reviewed. Electrocardiographic data before and after the procedure were collected and analyzed. We first evaluated the potential risk factors including gender, age, weight, inlet and outlet diameters of defect, subaortic rim length, occluder size, corrected occluder size into body surface area, fluoroscopy time, presence of aneurysm, and deployment position. We compared the potential risk factors between arrhythmia and nonarrhythmia groups using univariate analysis, followed by logistic analysis for independent risk factors. Results: Various arrhythmias were detected in 95 cases (24.1%) following transcatheter closure procedure. Logistic regression analysis revealed that eccentric (odds ratio [OR] 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2–7.2) and large occluders (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6–2.5), as well as long fluoroscopy time (OR 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1–1.2), were correlated with postprocedural arrhythmia. During 35.5 months (range: 9–80 months) of follow-up, most of the patients (74 out of 95) reverted to normal heart rhythm. Conclusions: The mid-term outcome of patients with arrhythmias after transcatheter closure of pmVSD was satisfactory as most of the patients recovered normal rhythm. Eccentric, large device and long fluoroscopy time increase the risk of arrhythmias after transcatheter closure of pmVSD.
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Circulating-free DNA Mutation Associated with Response of Targeted Therapy in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-positive Metastatic Breast Cancer p. 522
Qing Ye, Fan Qi, Li Bian, Shao-Hua Zhang, Tao Wang, Ze-Fei Jiang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200542  PMID:28229982
Background: The addition of anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted drugs, such as trastuzumab, lapatinib, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), to chemotherapy significantly improved prognosis of HER2-positive breast cancer patients. However, it was confused that metastatic patients vary in the response of targeted drug. Therefore, methods of accurately predicting drug response were really needed. To overcome the spatial and temporal limitations of biopsies, we aimed to develop a more sensitive and less invasive method of detecting mutations associated with anti-HER2 therapeutic response through circulating-free DNA (cfDNA). Methods: From March 6, 2014 to December 10, 2014, 24 plasma samples from 20 patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer who received systemic therapy were eligible. We used a panel for detection of hot-spot mutations from 50 oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, and then used targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) to identify somatic mutation of these samples in those 50 genes. Samples taken before their first trastuzumab administration and subsequently proven with clinical benefit were grouped into sensitive group. The others were collected after disease progression of the trastuzumab-based therapy and were grouped into the resistant group. Results: A total of 486 single-nucleotide variants from 46 genes were detected. Of these 46 genes, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), proto-oncogene c-Kit (KIT), and tumor protein p53 (TP53) were the most common mutated genes. Seven genes, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), G protein subunit alpha S (GNAS), HRas proto-oncogene (HRAS), mutL homolog 1 (MLH1), cadherin 1 (CDH1), neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), and NOTCH1, that only occurred m utations in the resistant group were associated with the resistance of targeted therapy. In addition, we detected a HER2 S855I mutation in two patients who had persistent benefits from anti-HER2 therapy. Conclusion: Targeted NGS of cfDNA has potential clinical utility to detect biomarkers from HER2-targeted therapies.
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Establishment and Application of Early Risk Stratification Method for Acute Abdominal Pain in Adults p. 530
Yu Wang, Hong Zhao, Zhen Zhou, Ci Tian, Hong-Li Xiao, Bao-En Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200553  PMID:28229983
Background: Acute abdominal pain is a common symptom of emergency patients. The severity was always evaluated based on physicians' clinical experience. The aim of this study was to establish an early risk stratification method (ERSM) for addressing adults with acute abdominal pain, which would guide physicians to take appropriate and timely measures following the established health-care policies. Methods: In Cohort 1, the records of 490 patients with acute abdominal pain that developed within the past 72 h were enrolled in this study. Measurement data and numeration data were compared with analysis of variance and Chi-square test, respectively. Multiple regression analysis calculated odd ratio (OR) value. P and OR values showed the impacts of factors. ERSM was established by clinical experts and statistical experts according to Youden index. In Cohort 2, data from 305 patients with acute abdominal pain were enrolled to validate the accuracy of the ERSM. Then, ERSM was prospectively used in clinical practice. Results: The ERSM was established based on the scores of the patient's clinical characteristics: right lower abdominal pain + 3 × diffuse abdominal pain + 3 × cutting abdominal pain + 3 × pain frequency + 3 × pain duration + fever + 2 × vomiting + 5 × stop defecation + 3 × history of abdominal surgery + hypertension history + diabetes history + hyperlipidemia history + pulse + 2 × skin yellowing + 2 × sclera yellowing + 2 × double lung rale + 10 × unconsciousness + 2 × right lower abdominal tenderness + 5 × diffuse abdominal tenderness + 4 × peritoneal irritation + 4 × bowel sounds abnormal + 10 × suspicious diagnosis + white blood cell count + hematocrit + glucose + 2 × blood urea nitrogen + 3 × creatine + 4 × serum albumin + alanine aminotransferase + total bilirubin + 3 × conjugated bilirubin + amylase. When the score was <18, the patient did not need hospitalization. A score of ≥18 and <38 indicated that the patient should be under observation or hospitalized. A score of ≥38 and <50 indicated the need for an emergent operation. A score of ≥50 indicated the need for admission to the Intensive Care Unit. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the ERSM in Cohorts 1 and 2 were 0.979 and 0.988, respectively. Conclusions: This ERSM was an accurate and reliable method for making an early determination of the severity of acute abdominal pain. There was the strong correlation between scores of ERSM and health-care decision-making.
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Anatomical Knee Variants in Discoid Lateral Meniscal Tears p. 536
Xu-Xu Chen, Jian Li, Tao Wang, Yang Zhao, Hui Kang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200535  PMID:28229984
Background: Discoid lateral meniscus was a common meniscal dysplasia and was predisposed to tear. There were some anatomical knee variants in patients with discoid lateral meniscus. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between anatomical knee variants and discoid lateral meniscal tears. Methods: There were totally 125 cases of discoid lateral meniscus enrolled in this study from February 2008 to December 2013. Eighty-seven patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery for right torn discoid lateral meniscus were enrolled in the torn group. An additional 38 patients who were incidentally identified as having intact discoid lateral menisci on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings were included in the control group. All patients were evaluated for anatomical knee variants on plain radiographs, including lateral joint space distance, height of the lateral tibial spine, height of the fibular head, obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau, squaring of the lateral femoral condyle, cupping of the lateral tibial plateau, lateral femoral condylar notch, and condylar cutoff sign. The relationship between anatomical variants and meniscal tear was evaluated. These anatomical variants in cases with complete discoid meniscus were also compared with those in cases with incomplete discoid meniscus. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in lateral joint space distance (P = 0.528), height of the lateral tibial spine (P = 0.927), height of the fibular head (P = 0.684), obliquity of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.672), and the positive rates of squaring of the lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.665), cupping of the lateral tibial plateau (P = 0.239), and lateral femoral condylar notch (P = 0.624). The condylar cutoff sign was significantly different between the two groups, with the prominence ratio in the torn group being smaller than that in the control group (0.74 ± 0.11 vs. 0.81 ± 0.04, P = 0.049). With the decision value of the prominence ratio (0.78) in predicting discoid lateral meniscal tear, the sensitivity and specificity of the cutoff sign were 66% and 71%, respectively. There were no significant differences in radiographic variants between the complete and incomplete discoid lateral meniscal groups. Conclusions: The condylar cutoff sign observed on the tunnel view of the radiograph is helpful in predicting meniscal tear in adult patients with discoid lateral meniscus. As for these patients, further MRI test is recommended.
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Association between N-terminal proB-type Natriuretic Peptide and Depressive Symptoms in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction p. 542
Yan Ren, Jiao Jia, Jian Sa, Li-Xia Qiu, Yue-Hua Cui, Yue-An Zhang, Hong Yang, Gui-Fen Liu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200536  PMID:28229985
Background: While depression and certain cardiac biomarkers are associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the relationship between them remains largely unexplored. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers in patients with AMI. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study using data from 103 patients with AMI between March 2013 and September 2014. The levels of depression, N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and troponin I (TnI) were measured at baseline. The patients were divided into two groups: those with depressive symptoms and those without depressive symptoms according to Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) score. Baseline comparisons between two groups were made using Student's t-test for continuous variables, Chi-square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, and Wilcoxon test for variables in skewed distribution. Binomial logistic regression and multivariate linear regression were performed to assess the association between depressive symptoms and biomarkers while adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. Results: Patients with depressive symptoms had significantly higher NT-proBNP levels as compared to patients without depressive symptoms (1135.0 [131.5, 2474.0] vs. 384.0 [133.0, 990.0], Z = −2.470, P = 0.013). Depressive symptoms were associated with higher NT-proBNP levels (odds ratio [OR] = 2.348, 95% CI: 1.344 to 4.103, P = 0.003) and higher body mass index (OR = 1.169, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.016 to 1.345, P = 0.029). The total SDS score was associated with the NT-proBNP level (β= 0.327, 95% CI: 1.674 to 6.119, P = 0.001) after multivariable adjustment. In particular, NT-proBNP was associated with three of the depressive dimensions, including core depression (β = 0.299, 95% CI: 0.551 to 2.428, P = 0.002), cognitive depression (β = 0.320, 95% CI: 0.476 to 1.811, P = 0.001), and somatic depression (β = 0.333, 95% CI: 0.240 to 0.847, P = 0.001). Neither the overall depressive symptomatology nor the individual depressive dimensions were associated with TnI levels. Conclusions: Depressive symptoms, especially core depression, cognitive depression, and somatic depression, were related to high NT-proBNP levels in patients with AMI.
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Executive Function Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder p. 549
Lan Shuai, David Daley, Yu-Feng Wang, Jin-Song Zhang, Yan-Ting Kong, Xin Tan, Ning Ji
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200541  PMID:28229986
Background: Accumulating evidence indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with core deficits in executive function (EF) which predicts poorer academic and occupational functioning. This makes early intervention targeting EF impairments important to prevent long-term negative outcomes. Cognitive training is a potential ADHD treatment target. The present study aimed to explore the efficacy, feasibility, and acceptability of a cognitive training program (targeting child's multiple EF components and involving parent support in daily life), as a nonpharmacological intervention for children with ADHD. Methods: Forty-four school -age children with ADHD and their parents participated in 12 sessions of EF training (last for 12 weeks) and 88 health controls (HC) were also recruited. Training effects were explored using both neuropsychological tests (Stroop color-word test, Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test, trail making test, tower of Hanoi, and false-belief task) and reports of daily life (ADHD rating scale-IV, Conners' parent rating scale, and behavior rating inventory of executive function [BRIEF]) by analysis of paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The differences on EF performances between children with ADHD after training and HC were explored using multivariate analysis. Results: The results (before vs. after EF training) showed that after intervention, the children with ADHD presented better performances of EF both in neuropsychological tests (word interference of Stroop: 36.1 ± 14.6 vs. 27.1 ± 11.1, t = 4.731, P < 0.001; shift time of TMT: 194.9 ± 115.4 vs. 124.8 ± 72.4, Z = –4.639, P < 0.001; false-belief task: χ2 = 6.932, P = 0.008) and reports of daily life (global executive composite of BRIEF: 148.9 ± 17.5 vs. 127.8 ± 17.5, t = 6.433, P < 0.001). The performances on EF tasks for children with ADHD after EF training could match with the level of HC children. The ADHD symptoms (ADHD rating scale total score: 32.4 ± 8.9 vs. 22.9 ± 8.2, t = 6.331, P < 0.001) and behavioral problems of the children as reported by parents also reduced significantly after the intervention. Participants reported that the EF training program was feasible to administer and acceptable. Conclusions: The EF training program was feasible and acceptable to children with ADHD and parents. Although replication with a larger sample and an active control group are needed, EF training program with multiple EF focus and parent involving in real-life activities could be a potentially promising intervention associated with significant EF (near transfer) and ADHD symptoms improvement (far transfer).
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Kinetics of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Level in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients who Achieved Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Loss during Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2a Treatment p. 559
Ming-Hui Li, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Jing Qu, Yao Lu, Ge Shen, Shu-Ling Wu, Min Chang, Ru-Yu Liu, Lei-Ping Hu, Zhen-Zhen Li, Wen-Hao Hua, Shu-Jing Song, Yao Xie
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200554  PMID:28229987
Background: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss/seroconversion is considered to be the ideal endpoint of antiviral therapy and the ultimate treatment goal in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). This study aimed to assess the patterns of HBsAg kinetics in CHB patients who achieved HBsAg loss during the treatment of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) α-2a. Methods: A total of 150 patients were enrolled, composing of 83 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive and 67 HBeAg-negative patients. Patients were treated with PEG-IFN α-2a180 μg/week until HBsAg loss/seroconversion was achieved, which occurred within 96 weeks. Serum hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid and serological indicators (HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, and anti-HBe) were determined before and every 3 months during PEG-IFN α-2a treatment. Biochemical markers and peripheral blood neutrophil and platelet counts were tested every 1–3 months. Results: Baseline HBsAg levels were 2.5 ± 1.3 log IU/ml, and decreased rapidly at 12 and 24 weeks by 48.3% and 88.3%, respectively. The mean time to HBsAg loss was 54.2 ± 30.4 weeks, though most patients needed extended treatment and 30.0% of HBsAg loss occurred during 72–96 weeks. Baseline HBsAg levels were significantly higher in HBeAg-positive patients (2.9 ± 1.1 log IU/ml) compared with HBeAg-negative patients (2.0 ± 1.3 log IU/ml; t = 4.733, P < 0.001), but the HBsAg kinetics were similar. Patients who achieved HBsAg loss within 48 weeks had significantly lower baseline HBsAg levels and had more rapid decline of HBsAg at 12 weeks compared to patients who needed extended treatment to achieve HBsAg loss. Conclusions: Patients with lower baseline HBsAg levels and more rapid decline during early treatment with PEG-IFN are more likely to achieve HBsAg loss during 96 weeks of treatment, and extended therapy longer than 48 weeks may be required to achieve HBsAg loss.
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Endometrial MicroRNA Signature during the Window of Implantation Changed in Patients with Repeated Implantation Failure p. 566
Cheng Shi, Huan Shen, Li-Juan Fan, Jing Guan, Xin-Bang Zheng, Xi Chen, Rong Liang, Xiao-Wei Zhang, Qing-Hua Cui, Kun-Kun Sun, Zhu-Ran Zhao, Hong-Jing Han
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200550  PMID:28229988
Background: At present, a diagnostic tool with high specificity for impaired endometrial receptivity, which may lead to implantation failure, remains to be developed. We aimed to assess the different endometrial microRNA (miRNA) signatures for impaired endometrial receptivity by microarray analysis. Methods: A total of 12 repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients and 10 infertile patients, who conceived and delivered after one embryo transfer attempt, were recruited as RIF and control groups, respectively. Endometrial specimens from the window of implantation (WOI) were collected from these two groups. MiRNA microarray was conducted on seven and five samples from the RIF and control groups, respectively. Comparative, functional, and network analyses were performed for the microarray results. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on other samples to validate the expression of specific miRNAs. Results: Compared with those in the control group, the expression levels of 105 miRNAs in the RIF group were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated (at least 2-fold) by microarray analysis. The most relevant miRNA functional sets of these dysregulated miRNAs were miR-30 family, human embryonic stem cell regulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and miRNA tumor suppressors by tool for annotations of microRNA analysis. Network regulatory analysis found 176 miRNA-mRNA interactions, and the top 3 core miRNAs were has-miR-4668-5p, has-miR-429, and has-miR-5088. Expression levels of the 18 selected miRNAs in new samples by real-time PCR were found to be regulated with the same trend, as the result of microarray analysis. Conclusions: There is a significant different expression of certain miRNAs in the WOI endometrium for RIF patients. These miRNAs may contribute to impaired endometrial receptivity.
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Prenatal Diagnosis of Right Dominant Heart in Fetuses: A Tertiary Center Experience over a 7-year Period p. 574
Juan Feng, Mei Zhu, Hao Liang, Qiao Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200544  PMID:28229989
Background: Right dominant heart (RDH) in fetuses can occur with a number of cardiac as well as noncardiac anomalies. Analysis of the enlargement of the right cardiac chamber in the fetus remains a major challenge for sonographers and echocardiographers. The aim of this study was to report the experience with prenatal diagnosis of RDH in the fetuses over a 7-year period. Methods: Fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of RDH from July 2009 to July 2016 were evaluated in two different categories: according to the gestational age, Group I (n = 154, second trimester) and Group II (n = 298, third trimester); and according to the fetal echocardiography diagnosis, Group A (n = 452, abnormal cardiac structure) and Group B (n = 90, normal cardiac structure). Differences in categorical variables were assessed by Chi-square exact test and continuous variables were evaluated by independent Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U-test depending on parametric or nonparametric nature of the data. Results: Over a 7-year period, 452 fetuses were referred for the assessment of suspected RDH. Left-sided obstructive lesions were observed most frequently in the fetuses with RDH. When comparing Group I with Group II and Group A with Group B, the latter groups exhibited significant differences in the right/left ventricle (RV/LV) ratio (1.435 vs. 1.236, P = 0.002; 1.309 vs. 1.168, P = 0.047), RV width Z-score (1.626 vs. 1.104, P < 0.001; 1.553 vs. 0.814, P = 0.014), and above +2 cutoff percentages (14.3% vs. 22.5%; P = 0.038; 21.5% vs. 12.2%, P = 0.046). Multivariable logistic regression revealed no variables associated with perinatal survival. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that RDH warrants careful attention to the possible presence of a structural cardiac anomaly, especially left-sided obstructive lesions. A diagnosis of RDH is best supported by a combination of the RV Z-score and RV/LV ratio. Most of the fetuses with RDH and structurally normal hearts had favorable outcomes.
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Clinical Analysis of Postpartum Hemorrhage Requiring Massive Transfusions at a Tertiary Center p. 581
Jun Hu, Zhu-Ping Yu, Peng Wang, Chun-Yan Shi, Hui-Xia Yang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200545  PMID:28229990
Background: The reports on massive transfusions (MTs) in obstetrics have recently been an increasing trend. We aimed to define the clinical features, risk factors, main causes, and outcomes of MTs due to severe postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and the frequency trends over the past 10 years. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 3552 PPH patients who were at ≥28 weeks of gestation in the Obstetric Department of Peking University First Hospital from January 2006 to February 2015. The clinical records of patients receiving MT with ≥5 units (approximately 1000 ml) of red blood cells within 24 h of giving birth were included. The Pearson's Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare the frequency distributions among the categorical variables of the clinical features. Results: One-hundred six women were identified with MT over the 10-year period. The MT percentage was stable between the first 5-year group (2006–2010) and the second 5-year group (2011–2015) (2.5‰ vs. 2.7‰, χ2 = 154.85, P = 0.25). Although uterine atony remained the main cause of MT, there was a rising trend for placental abnormalities (especially placenta accreta) in the second 5-year group compared with the first 5-year group (34% vs. 23%, χ2 = 188.26, P = 0.03). Twenty-four (23%) women underwent hysterectomy, and among all the causes of PPH, placenta accreta had the highest hysterectomy rate of 70% (17/24). No maternal death was observed. Conclusions: There was a rising trend for placental abnormalities underlying the stable incidence of MT in the PPH cases. Placenta accreta accounted for the highest risk of hysterectomy. It is reasonable to have appropriate blood transfusion backup for high-risk patients, especially those with placenta accreta.
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A Novel Mutation in the Pyrin Domain of the NOD-like Receptor Family Pyrin Domain Containing Protein 3 in Muckle-Wells Syndrome p. 586
Jian Hu, Yun Zhu, Jian-Zhong Zhang, Rong-Guang Zhang, Hou-Min Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200537  PMID:28229991
Background: Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a group of rare, heterogeneous autoinflammatory disease characterized by interleukin (IL)-1β-mediated systemic inflammation and clinical symptoms involving skin, joints, central nervous system, and eyes. It encompasses a spectrum of three clinically overlapping autoinflammatory syndromes including familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease. CAPS is associated with gain-of-function missense mutations in NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), the gene encoding NLRP3. Moreover, most mutations leading to MWS occurred in exon 3 of NLRP3 gene. Here, we reported a novel mutation occurred in exon 1 of NLRP3 gene in an MWS patient and attempted to explore the pathogenic mechanism. Methods: Genetic sequence analysis of NLRP3 was performed in an MWS patient who presented with periodic fever, arthralgia, and multiform skin lesions. NLRP3 was also analyzed in this patient's parents and 50 healthy individuals. Clinical examinations including X-ray examination, skin biopsy, bone marrow aspiration smear, and blood test of C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum levels of IL-1β, immunoglobulin E (IgE), antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, antinuclear antibodies, and extractable nuclear antigen were also analyzed. The protein structure of mutant NLRP3 inflammasome was calculated by SWISS-MODEL software. Proteins of wild type and mutant components of NLRP3 inflammasome were expressed and purified, and the interaction abilities between these proteins were tested by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay. Results: X-ray examination showed no abnormality in the patient's knees. Laboratory tests indicated an elevation of CRP (233.24 mg/L) and ESR (67 mm/h) when the patient had fever. Serum IL-1β increased to 24.37 pg/ml, and serum IgE was higher than 2500.00 IU/ml. Other blood tests were normal. Bone marrow aspiration smear was normal. A novel point mutation c.92A>T in exon 1 of NLRP3 gene was identified, which caused a p.D31V mutation in pyrin domain (PYD) of NLRP3. SPR assay showed that this point mutation may strengthen the interaction between the PYD of NLRP3 and the PYD of the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein. The mutation c.92A>T in exon 1 of the NLRP3 gene was not found in the patient's parents and 50 healthy individuals. Conclusions: The mutation c.92A>T in exon 1 of the NLRP3 gene is a novel mutation associated with MWS. The p.D31V mutation might promote the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and induce MWS in this patient.
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Increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and Ten-eleven Translocation Protein Expression in Ultraviolet B-irradiated HaCaT Cells p. 594
Dan Wang, Jin-Hua Huang, Qing-Hai Zeng, Can Gu, Shu Ding, Jian-Yun Lu, Jing Chen, Sheng-Bo Yang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200539  PMID:28229992
Background: DNA hydroxymethylation refers to a chemical modification process in which 5-methylcytosine (5mC) is catalyzed to 5- hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family proteins. Recent studies have revealed that aberrant TETs expression or 5hmC level may play important roles in the occurrence and development of various pathological and physiological processes including cancer and aging. This study aimed to explore the relation between aberrant DNA hydroxymethylation with skin photoaging and to investigate the levels of TETs, 5mC, and 5hmC expression 24 h after 40 mJ/cm2 and 80 mJ/cm2 doses of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation to HaCaT cells. Methods: To explore whether aberrant DNA hydroxymethylation is also related to skin photoaging, 40 mJ/cm2 and 80 mJ/cm2 doses of UVB were chosen to treat keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). After 24 h of UVB irradiation, 5mC and 5hmC levels were determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF), and at the same time, the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) and TETs were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or Western blot analysis. Results: After 40 mJ/cm2 and 80 mJ/cm2 doses of UVB exposure, both IHC and IF results showed that 5hmC levels increased significantly, while the 5mC levels did not exhibit significant changes in HaCaT cells, compared with HaCat cells without UVB exposure. Moreover, compared with HaCat cells without UVB exposure, the levels of TET1, TET2, and TET3 mRNA and protein expression were significantly upregulated (mRNA: P = 0.0022 and 0.0043 for TET1; all P < 0.0001 for TET2; all P = 0.0006 for TET3; protein: P = 0.0012 and 0.0006 for TET1; all P = 0.0022 for TET2; and all P = 0.0002 for TET3), and the levels of MMP-1 mRNA expression increased dose dependently in 40 mJ/cm2 and 80 mJ/cm2 UVB-irradiated groups. Conclusion: UVB radiation could cause increased 5hmC and TET expression, which might become a novel biomarker in UVB-related skin aging.
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EXPERT CONSENSUS Top

Consensus on the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes in Chinese Adults p. 600
Yu-Zhen Tong, Nan-Wei Tong, Wei-Ping Teng, Yi-Ming Mu, Jia-Jun Zhao, Zhong-Yan Shan, Guang Ning, on behalf of Chinese Society of Endocrinology
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200532  PMID:28229993
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PERSPECTIVE Top

Immunotoxin Therapy for Lung Cancer p. 607
Li-Yi Xie, Hai-Lan Piao, Min Fan, Zhen Zhang, Chen Wang, Darell D Bigner, Xu-Hui Bao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200540  PMID:28229994
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SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Sonographic Assessment of the Terminal Thoracic Duct in Patients with Lymphedema p. 613
Chao Gao, Meng Yang, Na Su, Xiong-Wei Li, E-Lan Yang, Jiu-Zuo Huang, Nan-Ze Yu, Xiao Long
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200546  PMID:28229995
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CLINICAL PRACTICE Top

Pheochromocytoma Characterizing Both Fever and Acute Renal Failure p. 617
Yan-Sheng Jin, Mao-Xiao Fan
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200543  PMID:28229996
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Pregnancy Combined with Epilepsy and Cerebral Cavernous Malformation p. 619
Ya-Lan Xu, Jun-Tao Liu, Yi-Jun Song, Xi-Ya Zhou, Qing-Wei Qi, Xu-Ming Bian, Zhi-Qin Xu, Lei Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200533  PMID:28229997
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CORRESPONDENCE Top

Splenic Infarction as Starting Symptom in Minimal Change Nephropathy p. 621
Qiu-Yue Li, Yu-Juan Yang, Qin-Kai Chen
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200552  PMID:28229998
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Acute Myeloid Leukemia Masquerading as Acute Appendicitis p. 623
Kai Shen, Chen-Lu Yang, Xu Cui, Ting Liu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200555  PMID:28229999
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Neurolymphomatosis Caused by Nasal-type Extranodal Natural Killer/T-cell Lymphoma p. 625
Fang-Fang Yi, Su-Shan Luo, Wen-Hua Zhu, Chong-Bo Zhao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200547  PMID:28230000
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Usage of Molecular Pathology in a Rare Oral Tuberculosis Diagnosis p. 627
Wen-Juan Nie, Nan-Ying Che, Bao-Yun Cai, Nai-Hui Chu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200534  PMID:28230001
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A Novel Frameshift Mutation in Neurofibromin 1 Gene in a Chinese Family with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 p. 629
Ying-Ying Dong, Yan-Hong Zhang, Hong-Wen Li, Lu-Zhu Chen, Ting-Mei Wang, Wei Hu, Man Hu, Qiu-Yun She, Dong-Xian Liu, Yun-Hua Deng
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.200538  PMID:28230002
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