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   Table of Contents - Current issue
5th August 2017
Volume 130 | Issue 15
Page Nos. 1765-1890

Online since Tuesday, July 25, 2017

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Diets for Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Pay Attention to Nutritional Intervention Highly accessed article p. 1765
Li-Peng Yang, Dong-Sheng Fan
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Clinical Features of Isolated Bulbar Palsy of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Chinese Population p. 1768
Hua-Gang Zhang, Lu Chen, Lu Tang, Nan Zhang, Dong-Sheng Fan
Background: Progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) is a classic phenotype of bulbar onset amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with more rapid progression and worse prognosis. However, as an often under-understood variant of ALS, isolated bulbar palsy (IBP) appears to progress more slowly and has a relatively benign prognosis. This study aimed to investigate the natural course and clinical features of IBP in Chinese population and to compare them with those of PBP. Methods: The clinical data of patients with bulbar onset ALS were collected from January 2009 to December 2013. Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), forced vital capacity (FVC), and follow-up evaluation were performed, and the differences in basic clinical features, ALSFRS-R, FVC, and primary outcome measures between IBP and PBP were analyzed. The independent t-test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used. Results: Totally 154 patients with bulbar onset ALS were categorized into two groups, 33 with IBP and 121 with PBP. In the IBP group, the male to female ratio was 0.7 to 1.0, and the mean onset age was 58.5 years. The mean duration from the onset was 16.0 months, and the mean ALSFRS-R score was 43.4 at patients' first visit to our hospital. In 14 IBP patients performing FVC examination, the mean FVC value was 90.5% and there were only two cases with abnormal FVC. In 26 IBP patients completing follow-up, 15 (58%) suffered death or tracheotomy and the mean survival time was 40.5 months. Significant differences were noted in sex ratio, onset age, ALSFRS-R score, upper motor neuron limb signs, pure lower motor neuron (LMN) bulbar signs, FVC, and survival time between IBP and PBP. Conclusions: IBP was evidently different from PBP, which was characterized with the predominance of female, pure LMN bulbar signs, an older onset age, a relative preservation of respiratory function, and a better prognosis.
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Nine-hole Peg Test and Ten-meter Walk Test for Evaluating Functional Loss in Chinese Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease p. 1773
Hui-Xia Niu, Rui-Hao Wang, Hong-Liang Xu, Bo Song, Jing Yang, Chang-He Shi, Yu-Sheng Li, Bing-Qian Zhang, Shao-Ping Wang, Quan Yong, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Yu-Ming Xu
Background: The 9-hole peg test (9-HPT) and 10-meter walk test (10-MWT) are commonly used to test finger motor function and walking ability. The aim of this present study was to investigate the efficacy of these tests for evaluating functional loss in Chinese Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. Methods: Thirty-four Chinese CMT patients (CMT group) from August 2015 to December 2016 were evaluated with 9-HPT, 10-MWT, CMT disease examination score, overall neuropathy limitation scale (ONLS), functional disability score, and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Thirty-five age- and gender-matched healthy controls (control group) were also included in the study. Student's nonpaired or paired t-test were performed to compare data between two independent or related groups, respectively. The Pearson test was used to examine the correlations between recorded parameters. Results: The mean 9-HPT completion time in the dominant hand of CMT patients was significantly slower than that in the healthy controls (29.60 ± 11.89 s vs. 19.58 ± 3.45 s; t = −4.728, P < 0.001). Women with CMT completed the 9-HPT significantly faster than men with CMT (dominant hand: 24.74 ± 7.93 s vs. 33.01 ± 13.14 s, t = 2.097, P = 0.044). The gait speed of the average self-selected velocity and the average fast-velocity assessed using 10-MWT for CMT patients were significantly slower than those in the control group (1.03 ± 0.18 m/s vs. 1.44 ± 0.17 m/s, t = 9.333, P < 0.001; 1.31 ± 0.30 m/s vs. 1.91 ± 0.25 m/s, t = 8.853, P < 0.001, respectively). There was no difference in gait speed between men and women. Both 9-HPT and 10-MWT were significantly correlated with the ONLS, functional disability score, and BBS (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The 9-HPT and 10-MWT might be useful for functional assessment in Chinese patients with CMT.
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A Novel Missense Mutation in Peripheral Myelin Protein-22 Causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease p. 1779
Li-Xi Li, Hai-Lin Dong, Bao-Guo Xiao, Zhi-Ying Wu
Background: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. A great number of causative genes have been described in CMT, and among them, the heterozygous duplication of peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP22) is the major cause. Although the missense mutation in PMP22 is rarely reported, it has been demonstrated to be associated with CMT. This study described a novel missense mutation of PMP22 in a Chinese family with CMT phenotype. Methods: Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the causative genes in a family featured with an autosomal dominant demyelinating form of CMT. The potential variants identified by targeted NGS were verified by Sanger sequencing and classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics standards and guidelines. Further cell transfection studies were performed to characterize the function of the novel variant. Results: Using targeted NGS, a novel heterozygous missense variant in PMP22 (c.320G>A, p.G107D) was identified. In vitro cell functional studies revealed that mutant PMP22 protein carrying p.G107D mutation lost the ability to reach the plasma membrane, was mainly retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, and induced cell apoptosis. Conclusions: This study supported the notion that missense mutations in PMP22 give rise to a CMT phenotype, possibly through a toxic gain-of-function mechanism.
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Correlation between Electroencephalogram Alterations and Frontal Cognitive Impairment in Esophageal Cancer Patients Complicated with Depression p. 1785
Yin Cao, Xia Chen, Hui Xie, Ling Zou, Li-Jun Hu, Xian-Ju Zhou
Background: Some esophageal cancer patients complicated with depression exhibit cognitive impairments. Frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) may be used as a reliable biomarker for prefrontal-mediated cognitive functions. This study was to investigate alterations of EEG and frontal cognitive impairment in esophageal cancer patients complicated with depression and to assess their correlation. Methods: Sixty-five esophageal cancer patients with depression (study group) and 62 healthy controls (control group) were included in this study. The study group were assigned into psychotic depressed (PD, n = 32) and nonpsychotic depressed (NPD, n = 33) subgroups based on complication with psychotic symptoms (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale [BPRS] >35). EEG examination, Beck self-rating depression scale, and BPRS were used to assess clinical symptoms. Chi-square test, two independent sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Kruskal-Wallis test were utilized to compare the variables between two groups. EEG abnormalities and scores of frontal cognitive function test were analyzed by partial correlation analysis in the PD and NPD subgroups. Results: Compared with control group, the study group displayed greater scores either in the Stroop test (19.89 ± 2.05 vs. 24.12 ± 2.19, P = 0.006) or Color Trails Test (CTT; 11.92 ± 1.01 vs. 15.02 ± 1.63, P = 0.008), and reduced score (35.05 ± 2.01 vs. 32.11 ± 2.38, P = 0.007) in the verbal fluency test (VFT). Compared to NPD subgroup, PD subgroup exhibited increased scores in Stroop test (22.89 ± 2.07 vs. 25.38 ± 2.32, P = 0.009) and CTT (13.16 ± 1.71 vs. 15.82 ± 1.13, P = 0.008). Moreover, increased scores in Stroop test and CTT as well as scores in VFT were associated with the severity of depression. The study group had an abnormal frontal EEG, such as α forward, α asymmetry, α moderation, and increased θ activity relative to control group. Similarly, compared with NPD subgroup, PD subgroup displayed α forward, α asymmetry, and α moderation. The correlation test revealed that α forward and α asymmetry were negatively associated with VFT score, but positively correlated with the scores of CTT and the Stroop test in PD subgroup. In addition, α asymmetry in NPD subgroup was positively related to CTT scores. Conclusion: This study indicated that frontal cognitive impairment in esophageal cancer patients complicated with depression is associated with EEG alterations.
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Insights into Initial Demyelinating Episodes of Central Nervous System during Puerperium p. 1791
Qian Wu, Bo Chen, Na Liu, Yang Hu, Chao Pan, Ping Zhang, Zhou-Ping Tang, Bi-Tao Bu
Background: Inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system (CNS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a high childbearing female predominance. Labor-related alterations for postpartum demyelinating attacks are not entirely clear. This study aimed to summarize clinical features of female patients of reproductive age with initial CNS inflammatory demyelinating attacks during puerperium. Methods: Fourteen female patients with initial demyelinating events during puerperium between January 2013 and December 2016 were retrospectively studied. Records of clinical features, neuroimaging, serum antibodies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, annualized relapse rate (ARR), and treatment were analyzed. Results: Among 14 patients, 5 patients were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), four as neuromyelitis optica (NMO), two as longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis, two as clinical isolated syndrome (CIS), and one as acute brainstem syndrome. All the 14 puerperal female patients presented with more than one manifestation of hemiplegia, paraplegia, uroschesis, visual loss or dysarthria, and with mild to moderate abnormalities of CSF. Attacks occurred during the first trimester postpartum and cesarean section was the main delivery way (n = 10). Median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were 5.0 (range: 2.0–9.0) at the onset and 2.5 (range: 0–7.0) at the end of follow-ups. Patients with MS and CIS had a significantly lower EDSS scores than patients with NMO spectrum disorders (P < 0.05). Median ARR was 0.46 (range: 0–1.16); all patients had a low ARR (0.49 ± 0.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.29–0.69) with standardized treatments. Conclusion: Labor-related alterations in the mother's immune system might result in newly-onset demyelinating diseases of central nervous system.
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Pretreated Glehnia littoralis Extract Prevents Neuronal Death Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia through Increases of Superoxide Dismutase 1 and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Expressions in the Gerbil Hippocampal Cornu Ammonis 1 Area p. 1796
Joon Ha Park, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Bing-Chun Yan, Bich-Na Shin, Ji Hyeon Ahn, In Hye Kim, Jeong Hwi Cho, Jae-Chul Lee, In Koo Hwang, Jong Dai Kim, Seongkweon Hong, Young Joo Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Il Jun Kang
Background: Glehnia littoralis, as a traditional herbal medicine to heal various health ailments in East Asia, displays various therapeutic properties including antioxidant effects. However, neuroprotective effects of G. littoralis against cerebral ischemic insults have not yet been addressed. Therefore, in this study, we first examined its neuroprotective effects in the hippocampus using a gerbil model of transient global cerebral ischemia (TGCI). Methods: Gerbils were subjected to TGCI for 5 min. G. littoralis extract (GLE; 100 and 200 mg/kg) was administrated orally once daily for 7 days before ischemic surgery. Neuroprotection was examined by neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. Gliosis was observed by immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1. For neuroprotective mechanisms, immunohistochemistry for superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was done. Results: Pretreatment with 200 mg/kg of GLE protected pyramidal neurons in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) area from ischemic insult area (F = 29.770, P < 0.05) and significantly inhibited activations of astrocytes (F = 22.959, P < 0.05) and microglia (F = 44.135, P < 0.05) in the ischemic CA1 area. In addition, pretreatment with GLE significantly increased expressions of SOD1 (F = 28.561, P < 0.05) and BDNF (F = 55.298, P < 0.05) in CA1 pyramidal neurons of the sham- and ischemia-operated groups. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that pretreatment with GLE can protect neurons from ischemic insults, and we suggest that its neuroprotective mechanism may be closely associated with increases of SOD1 and BDNF expressions as well as attenuation of glial activation.
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Pingyangmycin Pretreatment Influences the Biological Behavior of Ocular Venous Malformation and Relates with Galectin-3 Expression p. 1804
Jin Li, Jun-Bo Qiao, Qiu-Yu Liu
Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) plays a role in the mechanisms underlying ocular venous malformation. We conducted this study to investigate the effect of pingyangmycin pretreatment on the Gal-3 expressions and biological behavior of ocular venous malformation. Methods: Tissue samples were collected from 136 patients with ocular venous malformation. Patients were randomly divided into pingyangmycin (n = 69) and nonpingyangmycin group (n = 67). Patients in the pingyangmycin group received a local injection of 0.02% pingyangmycin once every 2 days for 2 weeks (7 doses) before removal surgery, whereas patients in the nonpingyangmycin group underwent removal surgery without local injection. The protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of Gal-3 were detected by using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: Gal-3 protein was expressed in 35 (52%) of 67 samples in the nonpingyangmycin group and in 19 (28%) of 69 samples in the pingyangmycin group (P < 0.05). Gal-3 mRNA expression was detected in 39 (58%) of 67 samples in the nonpingyangmycin group and 22 (32%) of 69 samples in the pingyangmycin group (P < 0.05). The higher Gal-3 expressions were detected in samples with deeper invasiveness than those with superficial invasiveness before (χ2 = 12.720 and 13.369, respectively, both P < 0.05) and after pingyangmycin treatment (χ2 = 8.429 and 4.590, respectively, both P < 0.05). It was more frequently detected in mesh-like lesions with unclear boundary than round lesions with clear boundary before (χ2 = 30.291 and 41.466, respectively, both P < 0.05) and after pingyangmycin treatment (χ2 = 14.619 and 15.130, respectively, both P < 0.05). Pingyangmycin treatment led to a significant difference in Gal-3 expressions at both protein and mRNA levels (χ2 = 8.664 and 9.524, respectively, both P < 0.05). Conclusions: Gal-3 expression may be involved in the development and invasiveness of ocular venous malformation, and pingyangmycin can inhibit Gal-3 expression, indicating a role of pingyangmycin treatment before the removal of ocular venous malformation.
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Ratios of T-helper 2 Cells to T-helper 1 Cells and Cytokine Levels in Patients with Hepatitis B p. 1810
Ming-Hui Li, Dan Zhang, Lu Zhang, Xiao-Jing Qu, Yao Lu, Ge Shen, Shu-Ling Wu, Min Chang, Ru-Yu Liu, Lei-Ping Hu, Hong-Xiao Hao, Wen-Hao Hua, Shu-Jing Song, Gang Wan, Shun-Ai Liu, Yao Xie
Background: Hepatitis B is an immune response-mediated disease. The aim of this study was to explore the differences of ratios of T-helper (Th) 2 cells to Th1 cells and cytokine levels in acute hepatitis B (AHB) patients and chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients in immune-tolerance and immune-active phases. Methods: Thirty chronic HBV-infected patients in the immune-tolerant phase (IT group) and 50 chronic hepatitis B patients in the immune-active (clearance) phase (IC group), 32 AHB patients (AHB group), and 13 healthy individuals (HI group) were enrolled in the study. Th cell proportions in peripheral blood, cytokine levels in plasma, and serum levels of HBV DNA, hepatitis B surface antigen, and hepatitis B e antigen were detected. Results: The Th1 cell percentage and Th2/Th1 ratio in the HBV infection group (including IT, IC, and AHB groups) were significantly different from those in HI group (24.10% ± 8.66% and 1.72 ± 0.61 vs. 15.16% ± 4.34% and 2.40 ± 0.74, respectively; all P < 0.001). However, there were no differences in the Th1 cell percentages and Th2/Th1 ratios among the IT, IC, and AHB groups. In HBV infection group, the median levels of Flt3 ligand (Flt3L), interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-17A were significantly lower than those in HI group (29.26 pg/ml, 33.72 pg/ml, and 12.27 pg/ml vs. 108.54 pg/ml, 66.48 pg/ml, and 35.96 pg/ml, respectively; all P < 0.05). IFN-α2, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 median levels in hepatitis group (including patients in AHB and IC groups) were significantly higher than those in IT group (40.14 pg/ml, 13.58 pg/ml, and 557.41 pg/ml vs. 16.74 pg/ml, 6.80 pg/ml, and 419.01 pg/ml, respectively; all P < 0.05), while patients in hepatitis group had significant lower Flt3L level than IT patients (30.77 vs. 59.96 pg/ml, P = 0.021). Compared with IC group, patients in AHB group had significant higher median levels of IL-10, TGF-β1, and TGF-β2 (22.77 pg/ml, 10,447.00 pg/ml, and 782.28 pg/ml vs. 8.66 pg/ml, 3755.50 pg/ml, and 482.87 pg/ml, respectively; all P < 0.05). Conclusions: Compared with chronic HBV-infected patients in immune-tolerance phase, chronic HBV-infected patients in immune-active phase and AHB patients had similar Th2/Th1 ratios, significantly higher levels of IFN-α2, IL-10, and TGF-β. AHB patients had significantly higher IL-10 and TGF-β levels than chronic HBV-infected patients in immune-active phase.
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Clinical Characteristics and Endoscopic Endonasal Removal of Foreign Bodies within Sinuses, Orbit, and Skull Base p. 1816
Yi-Hui Wen, Wei-Jian Hou, Wen-Bin Lei, Feng-Hong Chen, Xiao-Lin Zhu, Zhang-Feng Wang, Ren-Qiang Ma, Wei-Ping Wen
Background: Foreign bodies within the sinuses, orbit, and skull base (FBSOS) are rare; hence, diagnosis and management guidelines are lacking. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) removal is preferred because of the less invasiveness and minimal morbidity. This study was designed to summarize clinical experience with ESS management of FBSOS. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed clinical manifestations, imaging findings, treatment, and outcomes in consecutive patients with ESS removal of FBSOS between 2004 and 2015 at a tertiary academic medical center. The Chi-square test was performed to compare the infection rate between wooden and nonwooden FBSOS. Results: There were 23 male and five female patients, with median age of 11 years. FBSOS were located within the sinuses (86%), orbit (75%), and skull base/intracranial region (46%). Wooden FBSOS had a significantly higher risk of infection (78%) compared with nonwooden FBSOS (5%, P < 0.05). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) plus three-dimensional reconstruction was sensitive in all cases. Twenty-seven (96%) FBSOS were removed by ESS alone, while 1 (4%) FBSOS was removed using the combined ESS and lateral cervical approach. Four of the nine intracranial penetrating FBSOS patients had intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and received endoscopic CSF leak repair. Twelve (43%) patients suffered complications (meningitis, diplopia, and vision loss). Conclusions: ESS is a minimally invasive, safe, and promising surgical approach for FBSOS removal. Contrast-enhanced CT is effective in preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative guidance. Wooden FBSOS had higher risk of infection, thus antibiotics are recommended.
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The Short Isoform of Nuclear Mitotic Apparatus Protein 1 Functions as a Putative Tumor Suppressor p. 1824
Wang-Sen Qin, Jin Wu, Yang Chen, Fa-Cai Cui, Fu-Ming Zhang, Guan-Ting Lyu, Hong-Mei Zhang
Background: Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 (NuMA1) had been reported to produce three groups of isoforms categorized as long, middle, and short groups, of which short NuMA displayed distinct localization patterns compared to long and middle isoforms. However, the function of short NuMA was not clear in the progress of cancer formation. This study aimed to unveil the role of short NuMA in cancer pathogenesis. Methods: The expression levels of short isoforms were explored in paired gastric carcinoma (GC) samples and different cell lines. Furthermore, the short isoform behaved as a putative tumor suppressor based on cell proliferation and cell colony formation assays. Pull-down assay and whole-genome gene expression analysis were carried out to search candidate interaction partners of short NuMA. Results: The expression of short NuMA was highly expressed in S and G2 phases of the cell cycle; compared with nontumor tissues, short NuMA downregulated in nine GCs (GC1 [0.131, P = 5 × 10−4]; GC2 [0.316, P = 3 × 10−5]; GC3 [0.111, P = 6 × 10−4]; GC4 [0.456, P = 0.011]; GC5 [0.474, P = 0.001]; GC6 [0.311, P = 0.004]; GC7 [0.28, P = 3 × 10−5]; GC8 [0.298, P = 0.007]; and GC9 [0.344, P = 0.002]). Besides, high expression of short NuMA significantly inhibits cell growth (2.43 × 105 vs. 2.97 × 105, P = 0.0029) and cell clone information in vitro (70 vs. 2, P = 1.67 × 10−45). Short NuMA could bind with alpha–actinin-4 (ACTN4), a putative tumor promoting gene. Overexpression of short NuMA could tremendously decrease the expression of MYB proto-oncogene like 2 (MYBL2) of about 92-fold, which played an important role in the cell cycles. Conclusions: Short isoform of NuMA might be functioned as a putative role of tumor suppressor. Further studies should be made to illuminate the relationship between ACTN4, MYBL2, and tumor progression.
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Effect of High-fat Diet-induced Disorders on Rat with Endometrial Hyperplasia and Adiponectin System in Circulation and Uterus p. 1831
Chen-Guang Shang, Zhao-Hui Liu, Xiao-Hui Wang, Zong-Hao Feng, Yan Zhang
Background: Epidemiologic and genetic studies suggest a link between insulin resistance (IR) and endometrial cancer, and endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is a precancerous stage of endometrial cancer. Adiponectin is an adipokine which previously shown to be a risk factor for endometrial cancer. The aim of the study was to develop a rat model of IR and EH and evaluate adiponectin system in circulation and uterus. Methods: This study was a 46-week animal trial from February 2014 to January 2015. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 40 weeks to induce IR. Followed by ovariectomization, rats were orally administrated to 17β-estradiol (E2) for 4 weeks to induce EH and then sacrificed. A total of 36 rats were divided into four groups: E2, HFD, HFD + E2, and control groups. Data were analyzed with Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Chi-square was used to evaluate the score of immunohistochemistry. Results: The thickness of endometrial, glandular epithelium, and myometrium in the HFD-E2group were higher than the E2group (F = 59.02, F = 23.51 and F = 12.53, respectively, all P < 0.001). Plasma adiponectin levels in the E2group were lower than those in the control group, and the levels in the HFD-E2group were lower than those in the HFD group (F = 13.15, P < 0.05). However, after normalized to visceral adipose tissue, compared to the control group, plasma adiponectin levels were decreased in rat with HFD in the absence or presence of E2, respectively (F = 6.72, P < 0.05). Adiponectin gene (F = 10.48, P < 0.05) and protein (P < 0.05) levels in uterus in the HFD-E2group were higher than those in the HFD group. Conclusions: This study manifests that IR can effectively modulate EH, which suggests the involvement of energetic metabolism in uterine alternation. The combination effects of IR and EH modulate circulating adiponectin levels. However, adiponectin gene and protein levels in uterus are mainly response to estradiol.
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Chinese Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Tumefactive Demyelinating Lesions of Central Nervous System p. 1838
Neuroimmunology Group of Neurology Branch of Chinese Medical Association , Neuroimmunology Committee of Chinese Society for Immunology , Immunology Society of Chinese Stroke Association
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Recommendations for Electroencephalography Monitoring in Neurocritical Care Units p. 1851
Neurocritical Care Committee of the Chinese Society of Neurology (NCC/CSN)
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Current Nondopaminergic Therapeutic Options for Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease p. 1856
Juan-Juan Du, Sheng-Di Chen
Objective: The aim of this study was to summarize recent studies on nondopaminergic options for the treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Data Sources: Papers in English published in PubMed, Cochrane, and Ovid Nursing databases between January 1988 and November 2016 were searched using the following keywords: PD, nondopaminergic therapy, adenosine, glutamatergic, adrenergic, serotoninergic, histaminic, and iron chelator. We also reviewed the ongoing clinical trials in the website of clinicaltrials.gov. Study Selection: Articles related to the nondopaminergic treatment of motor symptoms in PD were selected for this review. Results: PD is conventionally treated with dopamine replacement strategies, which are effective in the early stages of PD. Long-term use of levodopa could result in motor complications. Recent studies revealed that nondopaminergic systems such as adenosine, glutamatergic, adrenergic, serotoninergic, histaminic, and iron chelator pathways could include potential therapeutic targets for motor symptoms, including motor fluctuations, levodopa-induced dyskinesia, and gait disorders. Some nondopaminergic drugs, such as istradefylline and amantadine, are currently used clinically, while most such drugs are in preclinical testing stages. Transitioning of these agents into clinically beneficial strategies requires reliable evaluation since several agents have failed to show consistent results despite positive findings at the preclinical level. Conclusions: Targeting nondopaminergic transmission could improve some motor symptoms in PD, especially the discomfort of dyskinesia. Although nondopaminergic treatments show great potential in PD treatment as an adjunct therapy to levodopa, further investigation is required to ensure their success.
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Current Evidences for the Use of UEscope in Airway Management p. 1867
Fu-Shan Xue, Ben-Quan Yang, Ya-Yang Liu, Hui-Xian Li, Gui-Zhen Yang
Objective: UEscope is a new angulated videolaryngoscope (VL). This review aimed to describe the features of UEscope and provide clinical evidences regarding the efficacy and safety of this video device in adult tracheal intubation and its roles in airway management teaching. Data Sources: The Wan Fang Data, CNKI, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched for relevant English and Chinese articles published up to January 15, 2017, using the following keywords: “HC video laryngoscope”, “UE videolaryngoscope”, “video laryngoscope”, and “videolaryngoscopy”. Study Selection: Human case reports, case series, observable studies, and randomized controlled clinical trials were included in our search. The results of these studies and their reference lists were cross-referenced to identify a common theme. Results: UEscope features the low-profile portable design, intermediate blade curvatures, all-angle adjustable monitor, effective anti-fog mechanisms, and built-in video recording function. During the past 5 years, there have been a number of clinical studies assessing the application and roles of UEscope in airway management and education. As compared with direct laryngoscope, UEscope improves laryngeal visualization, decreases intubation time (IT), and increases intubation success rate in adult patients with normal and difficult airways. These findings are somewhat different from the previous results regarding the other angulated VLs; they can provide an improved laryngeal view, but no conclusive benefits with regard to IT and intubation success rate. Furthermore, UEscope has extensively been used for intubation teaching and shown a number of advantages. Conclusions: UEscope can be used as a primary intubation tool and may provide more benefits than other VLs in patients with normal and difficult airways. However, more studies with large sample are still needed to address some open questions about clinical performance of this new VL.
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Imaging Features of Symptomatic Radiation-induced Cervical Artery Stenosis p. 1876
Jia-Ping Xu, Ji-Jun Shi, Guang-Xin Duan, Yong-Jun Cao
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In vitro Stent Graft Fenestration to Preserve All Supra-aortic Branches in the Treatment of a Stanford Type A Aortic Arch Dissection p. 1878
Tun Wang, Chang Shu, Ming Li, Alan Dardik, Quan-Ming Li
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An Improved Urethral Catheterization in Female Pigs: A† Pilot Study p. 1880
Da-Peng Li, Wen-Hao Zhang, Ming-Liang Yang, Chang-Bin Liu, Xin Zhang, Chang Cai, Jian-Jun Li
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Dysgerminoma and Gonadoblastoma with Para-aortic Lymph Node Metastasis in a Patient with Swyer Syndrome p. 1882
Ying Yao, Hao-Jie He, Jin-Song Han, Hong-Yan Guo
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Intraorbital Electroacupuncture Therapy for Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy p. 1884
Ling-Yun Zhou, Chang Su, Xue-Mei Li, Tie-Juan Liu, Ming Zhao
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Is the Future of Health-care Technology or Goal Driven? p. 1886
Yu Zhou, Zhong Jia, Si-Ya Kong, Jie Ni
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Elephantiasic Pretibial Myxedema with Involvement of the Buttocks and Face p. 1887
Ya-Nan Wang, Tao Wang, Dong-Lai Ma, Li Li
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Vigilance in Prescribing Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs p. 1889
Pugazhenthan Thangaraju, Sajitha Venkatesan
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Reply to Vigilance in Prescribing Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs p. 1890
Kyoung-Woo Seo, Jin-Sun Park, Seung-Jea Tahk, Joon-Han Shin
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