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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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20th February 2018
Volume 131 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 379-504

Online since Friday, February 9, 2018

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Associations between Body Composition Indices and Metabolic Disorders in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study Highly accessed article p. 379
Rong Zhang, Sheng-Yong Dong, Fei Wang, Cong Ma, Xiao-Lan Zhao, Qiang Zeng, Ao Fei
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225059  PMID:29451141
Background: Obesity induces dyslipidemia, hypertension, glucose intolerance, and inflammatory state, which results in atherogenic processes, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We usually use body composition indices, such as body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), waist circumference-height ratio (WHtR), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) to reflect the obesity. The aim of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to investigate the associations between body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Methods: A total of 12,018 Chinese adults were included. Body composition indices, such as BMI, BFP, WHtR, and WHR, and metabolic parameters, such as systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2h PBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and white blood cell count (WBC), were measured and analyzed. All analyses were stratified by gender. Results: All body composition indices and metabolic parameters except 2h PBG differed significantly between males and females (all P < 0.001). BMI was positively associated with SBP, DBP, LDL-C, TC, TG, FBG, 2h PBG, HbA1c, FINS, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP, and WBC, and inversely associated with HDL-C; similar relationships were identified between the metabolic parameters and BFP, WHtR, and WHR. In the multivariate analysis, the odds of impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and increased hs-CRP were 1.36, 1.92, 3.44, and 1.27 times greater in the overweight group than those in the normal weight group, respectively, and 1.66, 3.26, 7.53, and 1.70 times greater in the obese group than those in the normal weight group, respectively. The odds of dyslipidemia and hs-CRP were 1.29 and 1.38 times greater in the BFP ≥28.0% group than in the BFP <28.0% group, respectively. The odds of dyslipidemia, HOMA-IR, and hs-CRP were 1.55, 1.26, and 1.48 times greater in the WHtR ≥0.96 group than in the WHtR <0.96 group, respectively. Among males, the odds of HOMA-IR were 1.46 times greater in the WHR ≥0.54 group than in the WHR <0.54 group. Similar results were observed in females. Conclusions: This study identified positive associations between all evaluated body composition indices and metabolic parameters in Chinese adults. Among the body composition indices, BMI predicted four of the five evaluated metabolic disorders in both gender groups.
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Cost Analysis of Cervical Cancer Patients with Different Medical Payment Modes Based on Gamma Model within a Grade A Tertiary Hospital p. 389
Suo-Wei Wu, Tong Chen, Qi Pan, Liang-Yu Wei, Qin Wang, Jing-Chen Song, Chao Li, Ji Luo
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225052  PMID:29451142
Background: Cervical cancer shows a growing incidence and medical cost in recent years that has increased severe financial pressure on patients and medical insurance institutions. This study aimed to investigate the medical economic characteristics of cervical cancer patients with different payment modes within a Grade A tertiary hospital to provide evidence and suggestions for inpatient cost control and to verify the application of Gamma model in medical cost analysis. Methods: The basic and cost information of cervical cancer cases within a Grade A tertiary hospital in the year 2011–2016 were collected. The Gamma model was adopted to analyze the differences in each cost item between medical insured patient and uninsured patients. Meanwhile, the marginal means of different cost items were calculated to estimate the influence of payment modes toward different medical cost items among cervical cancer patients in the study. Results: A total of 1321 inpatients with cervical cancer between the 2011 and 2016 were collected through the medical records system. Of the 1321 cases, 65.9% accounted for medical insured patients and 34.1% were uninsured patients. The total inpatient medical expenditure of insured patients was RMB 29,509.1 Yuan and uninsured patients was RMB 22,114.3 Yuan, respectively. Payment modes, therapeutic options as well as the recurrence and metastasis of tumor toward the inpatient medical expenditures between the two groups were statistically significant. To the specifics, drug costs accounted for 37.7% and 33.8% of the total, surgery costs accounted for 21.5% and 25.5%, treatment costs accounted for 18.7% and 16.4%, whereas the costs of imaging and laboratory examinations accounted for 16.4% and 15.2% for the insured patient and uninsured patients, respectively. As the effects of covariates were controlled, the total hospitalization costs, drug costs, treatment costs as well as imaging and laboratory examination costs showed statistical significance. The total hospitalization costs, drug costs, treatment costs as well as imaging and laboratory examination costs of insured patient were 1.33, 1.42, 1.52, and 1.44 times of uninsured patients. Conclusions: The analysis of different payment modes toward the medical economic characteristics based on Gamma model is basically rational. Medical payment modes are having certain influence toward the hospitalization expenses of cervical cancer patients in an extent, as drug costs, treatment costs, and examination costs appear to be the main causes.
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Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis of 117 Families p. 395
Ya-Bing Zhang, Xiao-Xin Wang, Xi-Wei Zhang, Zheng-Jiang Li, Jie Liu, Zhen-Gang Xu, Ping-Zhang Tang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225054  PMID:29451143
Background: The first and most important step in characterizing familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (NMTC) is to distinguish the true familial patients, which is the prerequisite for all accurate analyses. This study aimed to investigate whether patients from families with ≥3 first-degree relatives affected with NMTC have different characteristics than patients from families with only two affected members, and to compare these patients with those with sporadic disease. Methods: We analyzed the clinicopathological features and prognosis of 209 familial and 1120 sporadic cases of NMTC. Familial patients were further divided into two subgroups: families with two affected members and families with ≥3 affected members. Results: The familial group had a significantly higher risk of bilateral growth, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, and lateral lymph node metastasis than the sporadic group (P < 0.05). These main features were also different between the group with ≥3 affected members and the sporadic group. The only difference between the two affected members' group and the sporadic group was incidence of multifocality (P < 0.05). The probability of disease recurrence in patients from families with ≥3 affected members was significantly higher than that in sporadic cases (14.46% vs. 5.27%; P = 0.001), while the probability in patients from families with two affected members was similar to that in sporadic patients (6.35% vs. 5.27%; P = 0.610). The Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference in disease-free survival between the two subgroups (85.54% vs. 93.65%; P = 0.045). Conclusions: Patients from families with ≥3 members affected by NMTC have more aggressive features and a worse prognosis than those from families with only two affected members. Patients from families with ≥3 affected first-degree relatives may be considered to have true familial NMTC.
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Moderate Dose of Trolox Preventing the Deleterious Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Spermatozoa In vitro through Reduction of Oxidative Stress Damage p. 402
Shang-Shu Ding, Ping Sun, Zhou Zhang, Xiang Liu, Hong Tian, Yong-Wei Huo, Li-Rong Wang, Yan Han, Jun-Ping Xing
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225045  PMID:29451144
Background: The worsening of semen quality, due to the application of Wi-Fi, can be ameliorated by Vitamin E. This study aimed to demonstrate whether a moderate dose of trolox, a new Vitamin E, inhibits oxidative damage on sperms in vitro after exposure to Wi-Fi radiation. Methods: Each of the twenty qualified semen, gathered from June to October 2014 in eugenics clinic, was separated into four aliquots, including sham, Wi-Fi-exposed, Wi-Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox, and Wi-Fi plus 10 mmol/L trolox groups. At 0 min, all baseline parameters of the 20 samples were measured in sequence. Reactive oxygen species, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase were evaluated in the four aliquots at 45 and 90 min, as were sperm DNA fragments, sperm mitochondrial potential, relative amplification of sperm mitochondrial DNA, sperm vitality, and progressive and immotility sperm. The parameters were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's posttest. Results: Among Wi-Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox, Wi-Fi-exposed and Wi-Fi plus 10 mmol/L trolox groups, reactive oxygen species levels (45 min: 3.80 ± 0.41 RLU·10−6·ml−1 vs. 7.50 ± 0.35 RLU·10−6·ml−1 vs. 6.70 ± 0.47 RLU·10−6·ml−1, P < 0.001; 90 min: 5.40 ± 0.21 RLU·10−6·ml−1 vs. 10.10 ± 0.31 RLU·10−6·ml−1 vs. 7.00 ± 0.42 RLU·10−6·ml−1, P < 0.001, respectively), percentages of tail DNA (45 min: 16.8 ± 2.0% vs. 31.9 ± 2.5% vs. 61.3 ± 1.6%, P < 0.001; 90 min: 19.7 ± 1.5% vs. 73.7 ± 1.3% vs. 73.1 ± 1.1%, P < 0.001, respectively), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (45 min: 51.89 ± 1.46 pg/ml vs. 104.89 ± 2.19 pg/ml vs. 106.11 ± 1.81 pg/ml , P = 0.012; 90 min: 79.96 ± 1.73 pg/ml vs. 141.73 ± 2.90 pg/ml vs. 139.06 ± 2.79 pg/ml; P < 0.001), and percentages of immotility sperm (45 min: 27.7 ± 2.7% vs. 41.7 ± 2.2% vs. 41.7 ± 2.5%; 90 min: 29.9 ± 3.3% vs. 58.9 ± 4.0% vs. 63.1 ± 4.0%; all P < 0.001) were lowest, and glutathione peroxidase (45 min: 60.50 ± 1.54 U/ml vs. 37.09 ± 1.77 U/ml vs. 28.18 ± 1.06 U/ml; 90 min: 44.61 ± 1.23 U/ml vs. 16.86 ± 0.93 U/ml vs. 29.94 ± 1.56 U/ml; all P < 0.001), percentages of head DNA (45 min: 83.2 ± 2.0% vs. 68.2 ± 2.5% vs. 38.8 ± 1.6%; 90 min: 80.3 ± 1.5% vs. 26.3 ± 1.3% vs. 26.9 ± 1.1%; all P < 0.001), percentages of sperm vitality (45 min: 89.5 ± 1.6% vs. 70.7 ± 3.1% vs. 57.7 ± 2.4%; 90 min: 80.8 ± 2.2% vs. 40.4 ± 4.0% vs. 34.7 ± 3.9%; all P < 0.001), and progressive sperm (45 min: 69.3 ± 2.7% vs. 55.8 ± 2.2% vs. 55.4 ± 2.5%; 90 min: 67.2 ± 3.3% vs. 38.2 ± 4.0% vs. 33.9 ± 4.0%; all P < 0.001) were highest in Wi-Fi plus 5 mmol/L trolox group at 45 and 90 min, respectively. Other parameters were not affected, while the sham group maintained the baseline. Conclusion: This study found that 5 mmol/L trolox protected the Wi-Fi-exposed semen in vitro from the damage of electromagnetic radiation-induced oxidative stress.
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Patients Administered Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Could be Enrolled into an Enhanced Recovery after Surgery Program for Locally Advanced Gastric Cancer p. 413
Jian Zhao, Gang Wang, Zhi-Wei Jiang, Chuan-Wei Jiang, Jiang Liu, Can-Can Xia, Jie-Shou Li
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225047  PMID:29451145
Background: Most studies on enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) for gastric cancer exclude patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy can be enrolled into the ERAS program for locally advanced gastric cancer. Methods: From April 2015 to July 2017, 114 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer were randomized into ERAS and standard care (SC) groups. Postoperative length of stay, complications, bowel function, and nutritional status were recorded. Results: The postoperative length of stay of the ERAS group was shorter compared with that of the SC group (5.9 ± 5.6 vs. 8.1 ± 5.3 days, P = 0.037). The postoperative complication rate was 9.3% in the ERAS group and 11.5% in the SC group (P = 0.700). The time to first flatus (2.7 ± 2.0 vs. 4.5 ± 4.6 days, P = 0.010) and time to a semi-liquid diet (3.2 ± 2.1 vs. 6.3 ± 4.9 days, P < 0.001) in the ERAS group were shorter compared with those in the SC group. On the 10th day after surgery, the values of weight, total protein, albumin, and prealbumin of the ERAS group were lower compared with those of the SC group. Conclusions: Patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be enrolled into ERAS programs for locally advanced gastric cancer. The nutritional status of these patients was not adversely affected.
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Safety and Efficiency of Trabectome-mediated Trabecular Meshwork Ablation for Chinese Glaucoma Patients: A Two-year, Retrospective, Multicentre Study p. 420
Ya-Long Dang, Yu-Jie Cen, Ying Hong, Ping Huang, Ning-Li Wang, Chao Wang, Chun Zhang, China Trabectome Study Group
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225050  PMID:29451146
Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the Trabectome for Chinese glaucoma patients. Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Glaucoma patients, except those with neovascular glaucoma, with/without a visually significant cataract were enrolled. The patients received Trabectome or a combined surgery with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. The primary outcome evaluation was a reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP), and the secondary outcomes were a reduction in glaucoma medication, the 2-year success percentages, and complications. Success was defined as an IOP <21 mmHg and at least a 20% IOP reduction from baseline after 3 months for any two consecutive visits, without additional glaucoma surgery. The data were processed using the R Stats Package version 3.0.0. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the postoperative IOP and the number of glaucoma medications with baselines. The Kaplan–Meier test was used to calculate the 2-year success percentage. The risk factors related to Trabectome failure were determined by logistic regression. Results: A total of 120 glaucoma patients were enrolled. The Trabectome efficiently reduced the IOP from a baseline of 22.8 ± 1.34 mmHg to 17.6 ± 0.96 mmHg, and the use of glaucoma medications from 2.2 ± 0.17 mmHg to 1.4 ± 0.21 in a 2-year follow-up (both, P < 0.01). The overall success percentage was 80%. No risk factor related to Trabectome failure was identified. No vision-threatening complication was observed. Ten patients, who required secondary glaucoma surgery, all reached the target IOP. Conclusions: In a 2-year follow-up, Trabectome was an efficient and safe procedure for Chinese glaucoma patients.
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Perioperative Single-Donor Platelet Apheresis and Red Blood Cell Transfusion Impact on 90-Day and Overall Survival in Living Donor Liver Transplantation p. 426
Wei Zheng, Kang-Mei Zhao, Li-Hui Luo, Yang Yu, Sheng-Mei Zhu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225049  PMID:29451147
Background: Although many previous studies have confirmed that perioperative blood transfusion is associated with poor outcomes after liver transplantation (LT), few studies described the influence of single-donor platelet apheresis transfusion in living donor LT (LDLT). This study aimed to assess the effect of blood products on outcomes for LDLT recipients, focusing on apheresis platelets. Methods: This retrospective study included 126 recipients who underwent their first adult-to-adult LDLT. Twenty-four variables including consumption of blood products of 126 LDLT recipients were assessed for their link to short-term outcomes and overall survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curve and the log-rank test were used for recipient survival analysis. A multivariate Cox proportional-hazard model and a propensity score analysis were applied to adjust confounders after potential risk factors were identified by a univariate Cox analysis. Results: Patients who received apheresis platelet transfusion had a lower 90-day cumulative survival (78.9% vs. 94.2%, P = 0.009), but had no significant difference in overall survival in the Cox model, compared with those without apheresis platelet transfusion. Units of apheresis platelet transfusion (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.103, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.720–5.600, P < 0.001) and preoperative platelet count (HR = 0.170, 95% CI: 0.040–0.730, P = 0.017) impacted 90-day survival independently. Multivariate Cox regression analysis also found that units of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (HR = 1.036, 95% CI: 1.006–1.067, P = 0.018), recipient's age (HR = 1.045, 95% CI: 1.005–1.086, P = 0.025), and ABO blood group comparison (HR = 2.990, 95% CI: 1.341–6.669, P = 0.007) were independent risk factors for overall survival after LDLT. Conclusions: This study suggested that apheresis platelets were only associated with early mortality but had no impact on overall survival in LDLT. Units of RBC, recipient's age, and ABO group comparison were independent predictors of long-term outcomes.
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Increased Endogenous Sulfur Dioxide Involved in the Pathogenesis of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome in Children: A Case-Control Study p. 435
Hong-Xia Li, Xiao-Chun Zheng, Si-Yao Chen, Ying Liao, Zhen-Hui Han, Pan Huang, Chu-Fan Sun, Jia Liu, Jing-Yuan Song, Chao-Shu Tang, Jun-Bao Du, Yong-Hong Chen, Hong-Fang Jin
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225051  PMID:29451148
Background: The pathogenesis of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the changes and significance of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in patients with POTS. Methods: The study included 31 children with POTS and 27 healthy children from Peking University First Hospital between December 2013 and October 2015. A detailed medical history, physical examination results, and demographic characteristics were collected. Hemodynamics was recorded and the plasma SO2was determined. Results: The plasma SO2was significantly higher in POTS children compared to healthy children (64.0 ± 20.8 μmol/L vs. 27.2 ± 9.6 μmol/L, respectively, P < 0.05). The symptom scores in POTS were positively correlated with plasma SO2levels (r = 0.398, P < 0.05). In all the study participants, the maximum heart rate (HR) was positively correlated with plasma levels of SO2(r = 0.679, P < 0.01). The change in systolic blood pressure from the supine to upright (ΔSBP) in POTS group was smaller than that in the control group (P < 0.05). The ΔSBP was negatively correlated with baseline plasma SO2levels in all participants (r = −0.28, P < 0.05). In the control group, ΔSBP was positively correlated with the plasma levels of SO2(r = 0.487, P < 0.01). The change in HR from the supine to upright in POTS was obvious compared to that of the control group. The area under curve was 0.967 (95% confidence interval: 0.928–1.000), and the cutoff value of plasma SO2 level >38.17 μmol/L yielded a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 92.6% for predicting the diagnosis of POTS. Conclusions: Increased endogenous SO2levels might be involved in the pathogenesis of POTS.
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A Study on Clinical Characteristics and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Manifestations on Systemic Rosai-Dorfman Disease p. 440
Xiao Cheng, Jing-Liang Cheng, An-Kang Gao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225053  PMID:29451149
Background: Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD) is typically characterized by painless bilateral and symmetrical cervical lymphadenopathy, with associated fever and leukocytosis. The aim of the current study was to summarize the clinical features and imaging characteristics of RDD, in an effort to improve its diagnostic accuracy. Methods: The study was analyzed from 32 patients between January 2011 and December 2017; of these, 16 patients had pathologically diagnosed RDD, eight had pathologically diagnosed meningioma, and eight pathologically diagnosed lymphoma. All patients underwent computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Clinical features and imaging characteristics of RDD were analyzed retrospectively. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of lesions at different sites were measured, and one-way analysis of variance and the least significant difference t-test were used to compare the differences between groups and draw receiver operating characteristic curves. The tumors were excised for biopsy and analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results: The mean ADCs were (0.81 ± 0.10) × 10−3 mm2/s for intercranial RDD, (0.73 ± 0.05) × 10−3 mm2/s for nasopharyngeal RDD, (0.74 ± 0.11) × 10−3 mm2/s for bone RDD, and (0.71 ± 0.04) × 10−3 mm2/s for soft-tissue RDD. The optimum ADC to distinguish intracranial RDD from lymphoma was 0.79 × 10−3 mm2/s (62.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity) and to distinguish meningioma from intracranial RDD was 0.92 × 10−3 mm2/s (62.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Levels of C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sediment rate and D-dimer were significantly elevated (81%, 87%, and 75%, respectively). On immunohistochemistry, RDD was positive for both S-100 and CD68 proteins but negative for CD1a. Conclusions: Conventional MRI, combined with diffusion-weighted imaging and ADC mapping, is an important diagnostic tool in evaluating RDD patients. An accurate diagnosis of RDD should consider the clinical features, imaging characteristics, and the pathological findings.
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Identification of Seven Novel Mutations in the Acid Alpha-glucosidase Gene in Five Chinese Patients with Late-onset Pompe Disease p. 448
Hua-Xu Liu, Chuan-Qiang Pu, Qiang Shi, Yu-Tong Zhang, Rui Ban
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225056  PMID:29451150
Background: Pompe disease is a rare lysosomal glycogen storage disorder linked to the acid alpha-glucosidase gene (GAA). A wide clinical and genetic variability exists between patients from different ethnic populations, and the genotype-phenotype correlations are still not well understood. The aim of this study was to report the clinicopathological and genetic characteristics of five Chinese patients with late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) who carried novel GAA gene mutations. Methods: Clinical and pathological data of patients diagnosed with glycogen storage disease at our institution from April 1986 to August 2017 were collected, and next-generation sequencing of frozen muscle specimens was conducted. Results: Of the five patients included in the study, the median disease onset age was 13 years, with a median 5 years delay in diagnosis. The patients mainly manifested as progressive weakness in the proximal and axial muscles, while one patient developed respiratory insufficiency that required artificial ventilation. In muscle biopsies, vacuoles with variable sizes and shapes appeared inside muscle fibers, and they stained positive for both periodic acid-Schiff and acid phosphatase staining. Ten GAA gene mutations, including seven novel ones (c.796C>A, c.1057C>T, c.1201C>A, c.1780C>T, c.1799G>C, c.2051C>A, c.2235dupG), were identified by genetic tests. Conclusions: The seven novel GAA gene mutations revealed in this study broaden the genetic spectrum of LOPD and highlight the genetic heterogeneity in Chinese LOPD patients.
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Exosomal MicroRNA-10a Is Associated with Liver Regeneration in Rats through Downregulation of EphA4 p. 454
Lin Luo, Ze-Ping Yu, Han Qin, Ze-Xin Zhu, Ming-Heng Liao, Hao-Tian Liao, Ke-Fei Yuan, Yong Zeng
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225057  PMID:29451151
Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play vital roles in liver regeneration. Previous studies mainly focused on the functions of intracellular miRNAs, while the functions of circulating exosomal miRNAs in liver regeneration remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the key exosomal miRNA that played vital roles in liver regeneration. Methods: The Sprague–Dawley male rats were assigned to 70% partially hepatectomized group (n = 6) and sham surgery group (n = 6). The peripheral blood of both groups was collected 24 h after surgery. The exosomal miRNAs were extracted, and microarray was used to find out the key miRNA implicated in liver regeneration. Adenovirus was used to overexpress the key miRNA in rats, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining was applied to study the effect of key miRNA overexpression on liver regeneration. Western blotting was used to validate the predicted target of the key miRNA. Results: Exosomal miR-10a was upregulated more than nine times in hepatectomized rats. The level of miR-10a was increased in the early phase of liver regeneration, reached the top at 72 h postsurgery, and decreased to perioperative level 168 h after surgery. Moreover, enforced expression of miR-10a by adenovirus facilitated the process of liver regeneration as evidenced by immunohistochemical staining of PCNA. Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor A4 (EphA4) has been predicted to be a target of miR-10a. The protein level of EphA4 was decreased in the early phase of liver regeneration, reached the bottom at 72 h postsurgery, and rose to perioperative level 168 h after surgery, which was negatively correlated with miR-10a, confirming that EphA4 served as a downstream target of miR-10a. Moreover, inhibition of EphA4 by rhynchophylline could promote the proliferation of hepatocytes by regulating the cell cycle. Conclusion: Exosomal miR-10a might accelerate liver regeneration through downregulation of EphA4.
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Different Effects of Pravastatin on Preeclampsia-like Symptoms in Different Mouse Models p. 461
Jing Huai, Zi Yang, Yan-Hong Yi, Guang-Jiao Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225058  PMID:29451152
Background: Pravastatin (Pra) exerts protective effects on preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a multifactorial and pathogenic pathway syndrome. The present study compared the effects of Pra on clinical manifestations of preeclampsia in different pathogenic pathways. Methods: Two different preeclampsia-like mouse models used in this study were generated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from day 7 of gestation, respectively. Pra treatment was administered on day 2 after the models were established in each group (L-NAME + Pra, LPS + Pra, and Control + Pra, n = 8) or normal saline (NS) for the control group (L-NAME + NS, LPS + NS, and Control + NS, n = 8). Maternal weight, serum lipids, the histopathological changes, and lipid deposition in the liver and placenta were observed. The pregnancy outcomes were compared. The blood pressure analysis was carried out on repeated measurements of variance. Student's t-test was used for comparing the two groups. The enumeration data were compared by Chi-square test. Results: The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and 24-h urinary protein in the L-NAME + NS and LPS + NS groups were significantly higher than the Control + NS group (F = 211.05 and 309.92 for MAP, t = 6.63 and 8.63 for 24-h urinary protein; all P < 0.05) and reduced in the L-NAME + Pra group as compared to the L-NAME + NS group (F = 208.60 for MAP, t = 6.77 for urinary protein; both P < 0.05). Urinary protein was decreased in the LPS + Pra group as compared to the LPS + NS group (t = 5.33; P < 0.05), whereas MAP had no statistical significance (F = 3.37; P > 0.05). Compared to the Control + NS group, the placental efficiency in the L-NAME + NS and LPS + NS groups decreased significantly (t = 3.09 and 2.89, respectively; both P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was observed in L-NAME + Pra and LPS + Pra groups (t = 1.37 and 0.58, respectively; both P > 0.05). Free fatty acid was elevated in the L-NAME + NS group as compared to the Control + NS group (t = 3.99; P < 0.05) at day 18 of pregnancy and decreased in the L-NAME + Pra group as compared to the L-NAME + NS group (t = 3.28; P < 0.05); however, no significant change was observed in the LPS model (F = 0.32; P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggested that Pra affected the clinical manifestations differently in preeclampsia-like mouse models generated in various pathogenic pathways.
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Effects of Plasma Lipids and Statins on Cognitive Function p. 471
Rui Li, Tian-Jun Wang, Pei-Yuan Lyu, Yang Liu, Wei-Hong Chen, Ming-Yue Fan, Jing Xu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225062  PMID:29451153
Objective: Dementia is the fourth most common cause of death in developed countries. The relationship between plasma lipids and cognitive function is complex and controversial. Due to the increasing life expectancy of the population, there is an urgent need to control vascular risk factors and to identify therapies to prevent and treat both cognitive impairment and dementia. Here, we reviewed the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognitive function. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for research articles published through November 2017 with key words including “plasma lipids,” “hyperlipidemia,” “hypercholesterolemia,” “statins,” and “cognition function.” Study Selection: Articles were retrieved and reviewed to analyze the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognitive function and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Results: Many studies have examined the relationship between plasma lipids and cognitive function, but no definitive conclusions can be drawn. The mechanisms involved may include blood-brain barrier injury, the influence on small blood vessels in the brain, the influence on amyloid deposition, and a neuroprotective effect. To date, most studies of statins and cognition have been observational, with few randomized controlled trials. Therefore, firm conclusions regarding whether mid- or long-term statin use affects cognition function and dementia remain elusive. However, increasing concern exists that statins may be a causative factor for cognitive problems. These adverse effects appear to be rare and likely represent a yet-to-be-defined vulnerability in susceptible individuals. Conclusions: The association between plasma lipids and cognition, the mechanism of the influence of plasma lipids on cognitive function, and the association between statins and cognitive function are complex issues and currently not fully understood. Future research aimed at identifying the mechanisms that underlie the effects of plasma lipids and statins on cognition will not only provide important insight into the causes and interdependencies of cognitive impairment and dementia, but also inspire novel strategies for treating and preventing these cognitive disorders.
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CLINICAL OBSERVATION Top

Novel Mutations in SCN4A Gene Cause Myotonia Congenita with Scoliosis p. 477
Yang-Qi Xu, Xiao-Li Liu, Xiao-Jun Huang, Wo-Tu Tian, Hui-Dong Tang, Li Cao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225061  PMID:29451154
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CORRESPONDENCE Top

Proteomic Analysis of the Serum of Patients with Stable Vitiligo and Progressive Vitiligo p. 480
Yi-Lei Li, Hong Wang, Rui-Qun Qi, Yu-Xiao Hong, Song Zheng, Bi-Huan Xiao, Qian An, Jiu-Hong Li, Hong-Duo Chen, Xing-Hua Gao
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225055  PMID:29451155
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Intravascular Foreign Bodies: A Single-Institution Experience and Description of a Novel Modified Percutaneous Retrieval Technique p. 484
Mario Enrique Baltazares-Lipp, Benito Sarabia-Ortega, Juan Ignacio Soto-González, Carlos Manuel Aboitiz-Rivera, Héctor A Carmona-Ruiz, Ruben Blachman-Braun
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225060  PMID:29451156
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Current Research of Chlamydial Infection Diseases in China p. 486
Xue Li, Qing-Feng Liang, Guan-Yu Su, Li-Yuan Wu, Xin-Xin Lu, Ning-Li Wang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225063  PMID:29451157
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Lymphangioma Circumscriptum in Vulva with Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome p. 490
Xiao-Yang Liu, Si Zhang, Heng Zhang, Jun Jia, Lin Cai, Jian-Zhong Zhang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225066  PMID:29451158
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Use of Rectal Swab Samples for Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiome in Children p. 492
Nan Zhang, Tong-Zeng Li, Kai Zheng, Dan-Lei Mou, Lian-Chun Liang, Tong Zhang, Qiu-Shui He
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225065  PMID:29451159
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Wogonin Inhibits Growth of Mantle Cell Lymphoma Cells through Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling Pathway p. 495
Pei-Pei Xu, Hua-Qin Zuo, Rong-Fu Zhou, Bing Chen, Jian Ouyang
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225064  PMID:29451160
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Clinical Characteristics of Pneumonia in Chinese Hemodialysis Patients p. 498
Jing Liu, Shao-Bin Yu, Xiao-Xi Zeng, Huai-Hong Yuan, Stephen Salerno, Ping Fu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225046  PMID:29451161
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Four Case Reports of Endometriosis-Related Hemoperitoneum in Pregnancy p. 502
Fu-Mei Gao, Guo-Li Liu
DOI:10.4103/0366-6999.225048  PMID:29451162
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