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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 131  |  Issue : 18  |  Page : 2216-2225

Effect of Regulatory Network of Exosomes and microRNAs on Neurodegenerative Diseases


1 Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009; Department of Engineering and Applied Biology, College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, Sichuan 625014, China
2 Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009, China
3 Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009; Department of Environmental Geology, College of Environmental and Civil Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan 610059, China
4 Department of Engineering and Applied Biology, College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, Sichuan 625014, China

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Xiao-Hua Zhu
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, China West Normal University, Nanchong, Sichuan 637009; Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu, Sichuan 610059
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.240817

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Objective: A comprehensive review of the network regulation of exosomes and microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurodegenerative diseases was done, centering on the mechanism of the formation of exosomes and miRNAs and the sorting mechanism of exosomal miRNAs, with the aim to provide a theoretical basis in the search of biomarkers and the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Data Sources: The comprehensive search used online literature databases including NCBI PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Baidu Scholar. Study Selection: The study selection was based on the following keywords: exosomes, miRNAs, central nervous system (CNS), and neurodegenerative diseases. The time limit for literature retrieval was from the year 2000 to 2018, with language restriction in English. Relevant articles were carefully reviewed, with no exclusions applied to study design and publication type. Results: Exosomes are the smallest nanoscale membranous microvesicles secreted by cells and contain important miRNAs, among other rich contents. In the CNS, exosomes can transport amyloid β-protein, α-synuclein, Huntington-associated protein 1, and superoxide dismutase I to other cells. These events relieve the abnormal accumulation of proteins and aggravating neurological diseases. In some neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, miRNAs are pathologically altered as an inexorable course, suggesting that miRNAs may contribute neurodegeneration. Exosomes and miRNAs form a network to regulate the homeostasis of the CNS, both synergistically and individually. Conclusion: The network of exosomes and miRNAs that regulates CNS homeostasis is a promising biomarker for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

 

 Abstract in Chinese

外泌体与microRNAs调控网络失衡对神经退行性疾病的影响

摘要

目的:围绕外泌体和microRNAs的形成机制,以及外泌体microRNAs的分选机制,综述了外泌体和microRNAs在神经退行性疾病中的网络调控作用,旨在为神经退行性疾病的治疗、生物标志的寻找提供理论基础。

数据源:基于在线文献数据库的全面检索,包含NCBI PubMed,科学引文索引,Google学术搜索和百度学术搜索等。

文献筛选:文献筛选基于外泌体、microRNAs、中枢神经系统和神经退行性疾病关键词进行检索,检索年限从2000年到2018年,所有检索内容语言均为英文。相关文章已进行仔细筛选,没有因研究设计和出版类型而排除文献。

结果:外泌体是细胞分泌的纳米级别膜性小泡,包含丰富的内容物,其中较为重要的就是microRNAs。在中枢神经系统中,外泌体能转运β样淀粉蛋白、α-突触核蛋白、亨廷顿相关蛋白1以及超氧化物岐化酶I到其它细胞,即能缓解蛋白的异常积聚,也可能加重神经系统疾病。在神经退行性疾病,包括AD、PD、HD、ALS,microRNAs会发生病理上的改变,且是一个必然的过程,暗示着microRNAs可能是导致神经退行性疾病的因素。不仅如此,在中枢神经系统中,外泌体和microRNAs既有协同调控也有单独调控,两者构成网络共同调控着中枢神经系统稳态。

结论:外泌体和microRNAs形成网络共同调控中枢神经系统的稳态,有望成为诊断和治疗神经退行性疾病的有效工具。



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