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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 131  |  Issue : 16  |  Page : 1926-1935

Visual Dominance Effect upon Passing the Central Bottleneck of Information Processing


1 Department of Neurology, Beijing Luhe Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 101149, China
2 Center for Studies of Psychological Application and School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510631, China
3 Department of Neurology, Beijing Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 101149, China
4 Center for Studies of Psychological Application and School of Psychology, South China Normal University; Department of Psychology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510631, China

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Qi Chen
Center for Studies of Psychological Application and School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510631
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.238144

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Background: In the classical psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm, two stimuli are presented in brief succession, and participants are asked to make separate speeded responses to both stimuli. Due to a central cognitive bottleneck, responses to the second stimulus are delayed, especially at short stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between the two stimuli. Although the mechanisms of dual-task interference in the classical PRP paradigm have been extensively investigated, specific mechanisms underlying the cross-modal PRP paradigm are not well understood. In particular, it remains unknown whether the dominance of vision over audition manifests in the cross-modal PRP tasks. The present study aimed to investigate whether the visual dominance effect manifests in the cross-modal PRP paradigm. Methods: We adapted the classical PRP paradigm by manipulating the order of a visual and an auditory task: the visual task could either precede the auditory task or vice versa, at either short or long SOAs. Twenty-five healthy participants took part in Experiment 1, and thirty-three new participants took part in Experiment 2. Reaction time and accuracy data were calculated and further analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that visual precedence in the Visual-Auditory condition caused larger impairments to the subsequent auditory processing than vice versa in the Auditory-Visual condition: a larger delay of second response was revealed in the Visual-Auditory condition (135 ± 10 ms) than the Auditory-Visual condition (88 ± 9 ms). This effect was found only at the short SOAs under the existence of the central bottleneck, but not at the long SOAs. Moreover, this effect occurred both when the single visual and the single auditory task were of equal difficulty in Experiment 1 and when the single auditory task was more difficult than the single visual task in Experiment 2. Conclusion: Results of the two experiments suggested that the visual dominance effect occurred under the central bottleneck of cognitive processing.

 

 Abstract in Chinese

中央瓶颈加工中的视觉主导效应

摘要

背景:在经典的心理不应期(PRP)范式中,被试要求对相继呈现的两个任务分别进行反应。由于中央瓶颈加工的限制,对第二个任务的反应时(简称RT2)会随着两个刺激间隔时间(SOA)的缩短而延长。当两个任务的刺激来自不同的感觉通道时(如,一个视觉任务和一个听觉任务),这种跨通道心理不应期范式(cross-modal PRP paradigm)背后的认知加工机制仍然缺乏深入关注。本研究旨在探讨在视听跨通道心理不应期范式中是否会出现视觉通道主导听觉通道的现象。

方法:本研究采用视听跨通道心理不应期范式,其中包含一个视觉数字大小判断任务和一个听觉高低音辨别任务,并操纵两个任务呈现的顺序(视觉任务先呈现、听觉任务先呈现)和SOA(长、短)。因变量为被试的反应时和正确率,采用重复测量多元方差分析进行统计分析。实验一中视觉任务和听觉任务难度平衡,包含22名健康被试。通过增加背景噪音,实验二中听觉任务比视觉任务更难,另包含33名健康被试。

结果:相较于听觉任务先呈现的条件(88 ± 9 ms),视觉任务先呈现条件下RT2延长的程度显著更大(135 ± 10 ms)。结果说明了,当视觉任务先于听觉任务呈现,视觉通道信息在加工过程的主导地位会对随后的听觉加工产生更大的干扰。这种效应仅仅出现在短SOA条件下,即当两个任务需要同时进行中央瓶颈加工时。此外,这种视觉主导效应不受视觉和听觉任务的难度是否平衡的影响。

结论当视觉和听觉任务同时需要进行中央瓶颈加工时存在视觉主导效应。



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