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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 130  |  Issue : 9  |  Page : 1049-1054

Clinical and Genetic Features of Chinese X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth Type 1 Disease

Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, China

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Yun Yuan
Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, 8 Xishiku Street, Xicheng District, Beijing 100034
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.204925

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Background: X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1X) disease is one of the most common forms of inherited neuropathy caused by mutations in the gap junction beta-1 protein (GJB1) gene (also known as connexin 32). This study presented the clinical and genetic features of a series of Chinese patients with GJB1 gene mutations. Methods: A total of 22 patients from unrelated families, who were referred to Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital from January 2005 to January 2016, were identified with GJB1 mutations. Their clinical records and laboratory findings were retrospectively collected and reviewed. Mutations in the GJB1 gene were analyzed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). Nucleotide alternations were confirmed with Sanger sequencing. Results: The CMT1X patients predominantly showed distal muscle weakness of lower limbs with mild sensory disturbance. The mean age of onset was 15.6 ± 8.7 years (ranging from 1 year to 42 years). The sudden onset of cerebral symptoms appeared in four patients (18.2%); two were initial symptoms. One case had constant central nervous system (CNS) signs. There were 19 different heterozygous mutations, including 15 known mutations and four novel mutations (c.115G>T, c.380T>A, c.263C>A, and c.818_819insGGGCT). Among the 22 Chinese patients with CMT1X, the frequency of the GJB1 mutation was 4.5% in transmembrane domain 1 (TM1), 4.5% in TM2, 22.7% in TM3, 9.1% in TM4, 4.5% in extracellular 1 (EC1), 27.3% in EC2, 9.1% in intracellular loop, 13.6% in the N-terminal domain, and 4.5% in the C-terminal domain. CMT1X with CNS impairment appeared in five (22.7%) of these patients. Conclusions: This study indicated that CNS impairment was not rare in Chinese CMT1X patients. Mutations in the EC2 domain of the GJB1 gene were hotspot in Chinese CMT1X patients.

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