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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 130  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 722-729

Research Progress on the Risk Factors and Outcomes of Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques


1 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022; Department of Neurology, Lu'an Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University (People's Hospital of Lu'an City), Lu'an, Anhui 237005, China
2 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022; High and New Technology Group Office, Hefei National Level High and New Technology Development Zone, Hefei, Anhui 230088, China
3 Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022; Department of Neurology, The Affiliated Chaohu Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Chaohu, Anhui 238000, China

Correspondence Address:
Gui-Hai Chen
Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230022
China
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0366-6999.201598

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Objective: Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with distal atheromatous debris embolization, causes cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to explore research progress on the risk factors and outcomes of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention. Data Sources: We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to June 2016, with the key words of “risk factors”, “outcomes”, “blood components”, “molecular mechanisms”, “cellular mechanisms”, and “human carotid atherosclerotic plaques”. Study Selection: The articles, regarding the latest developments related to the risk factors and outcomes, atherosclerotic plaque composition, blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention, were selected. Results: This review described the latest researches regarding the interactive effects of both traditional and novel risk factors for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, novel insights into human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Conclusion: Carotid plaque biology and serologic biomarkers of vulnerability can be used to predict the risk of cerebrovascular events. Furthermore, plaque composition, rather than lesion burden, seems to most predict rupture and subsequent thrombosis.


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